When a cellular protein is no longer needed, a proteasomal complex is often used to degrade the unneeded protein. However, proteasomal subunits are now known to be active in nuclear excision repair and transcription elongation. Gonzalez et al. (see the Perspective by Ottosen et al.) use biochemical and genetic analyses to demonstrate that the transcriptional activator Gal4 recruits the 19S, but not the 20S, proteasome particle to a target gene.