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Many laboratories have searched for the protein kinase responsible for phosphorylation of the chloroplast light-harvesting complex of photosynthesis, LHC II. The LHC II kinase provides a vital link in a redox signaling pathway of ecological, developmental, and evolutionary significance. Various candidates for the LHC II kinase, some stronger than others, have come and gone. Recently, a family of three thylakoid-associated kinases (TAKs) has been identified and purified; they too catalyze in vitro phosphorylation of LHC II. The LHC II kinase is part of an integrated network of signal transduction to which input is provided by a number of environmental factors. The implications of understanding these processes stretch beyond the important, central question of how plants adapt their photosynthetic machinery to changing wavelengths of light.