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I kappa B (IκB) was initially identified as a factor that inhibits DNA binding and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Recently, however, IκB family members have demonstrated direct nuclear roles in regulating NF-κB–dependent transcription. Some IκB proteins, including IκBα and IκBβ, can regulate transcription by modulating the concentration of active NF-κB complexes within the nucleus. Others, such as IκBζ and Bcl-3, can directly activate transcription by forming transcriptional complexes at gene promoters. Thus, IκB proteins play important nuclear roles in regulating NF-κB–dependent transcription after stimulation with various extracellular signals.