Protein Interfaces in Signaling Regulated by Arginine Methylation

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Science's STKE  15 Feb 2005:
Vol. 2005, Issue 271, pp. re2
DOI: 10.1126/stke.2712005re2

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Posttranslational covalent modifications of proteins provide a major mechanism for cellular signal transduction. Arginine methylation is a covalent modification that results in the addition of methyl groups on the arginine side chains catalyzed by members of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family. Identification of several arginine-methylated proteins indicates that arginine methylation influences several signaling pathways. Involvement of PRMT1, the major arginine methyltransferase, in T cell signaling, in response to lipopolysaccharides, in the stabilization of tumor necrosis factor–α mRNA, and in cytokine responses implicates this posttranslational modification in regulation of cell proliferation and antiviral responses. Arginine methylation can regulate protein-protein interactions. SH3 domains that normally associate with polyproline-rich ligands fail to do so when the neighboring arginine is dimethylated. Many other examples have now been documented, including protein interactions that are positively regulated by arginine methylation. This review focuses on how arginine methylation is implicated in protein-protein interactions that influence cell signaling.