Two stem cell types are found in the Drosophila ovary, germline stem cells and somatic stem cells. Self-renewal of these cells requires the function of the Hedgehog, bone morphogenic protein (BMP), and Wingless signaling pathways. Xi and Xie now show that two adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeling factors, Imitation SWI (ISWI) and DOMINO (DOM), also regulate self-renewal in the Drosophila ovary. DOM is required for somatic stem cell self-renewal, and ISWI is required for germline stem cell self-renewal in response to BMP signaling in the stem cell microenvironment or "niche." Because this type of chromatin remodeling complex is highly conserved, it is likely that chromatin remodeling may play a role in stem cell self-renewal in other organisms.