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Pituitary adenylate cyclase–activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that elevates adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP, also abbreviated cAMP) to elicit neuritogenesis in PC12 cells. This effect appears to be independent of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) yet dependent on cAMP, leading to the conclusion that another cAMP-binding protein and subsequent signaling pathway must exist to mediate this PKA-independent signaling mechanism. Such a protein was identified as exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC). Although EPAC may play an indirect role in PACAP-mediated neuritogenesis, it does not serve as the only PKA-independent link from cAMP that leads to neuritogenesis. Thus, the challenge remains to construct a signaling network that incorporates the known mediators, working independently of PKA, that are ultimately responsible for PACAP-mediated neuritogenesis.