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Microfluidic devices are revolutionizing bioanalysis, and designs capable of detecting single protein molecules are now available. Two recently described microfluidic devices provide information on the number of β2-adrenergic receptors in individual cultured insect cells and measure the degradation of phycobilisomes in individual cyanobacteria, respectively. This latter experiment, which included the analysis of three single cells in parallel, heralds a bright future for high-throughput single-cell analyzers. These devices could greatly advance research in signal transduction and studies of the effects of environmental stimuli or xenobiotics on cellular responses.