T Cell Activation by TLRs: A Role for TLRs in the Adaptive Immune Response

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Science's STKE  04 Sep 2007:
Vol. 2007, Issue 402, pp. pe48
DOI: 10.1126/stke.4022007pe48

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Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation is primarily thought to affect antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by inducing an innate immune response that can subsequently activate the adaptive immune system. However, there are increasing data that demonstrate expression and activation of TLRs on T cells, thus providing evidence for a direct role for TLRs in the activation of an adaptive immune response. A study recently demonstrated that Pam3CSK {N-palmitoyl-S-[2,3-bis(palmitoloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-Cys-Ser-Lys4}, a TLR2 agonist lipopeptide, activates T helper 1 (TH1) cells and induces interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production, even in the absence of TLR1, which differs from its mechanism of activation of APCs. Moreover, whereas Pam3CSK-stimulated IFN-γ production by TH1 cells is ablated in the absence of both myeloid differentiation marker 88 (MyD88), an adaptor protein in the TLR pathway, and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)–associated kinase–4 (IRAK4), the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are still phosphorylated. These data suggest that TLR2 activation of TH1 cells occurs through a mechanism different from that described for APCs and provides further evidence of direct TLR activation of the adaptive immune system.

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