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The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays crucial roles in developmental and cancer biology. Most of its biological effects have been ascribed to its tyrosine kinase activity, which propagates signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Here, we report that IGF-1 promotes the modification of IGF-1R by small ubiquitin-like modifier protein–1 (SUMO-1) and its translocation to the nucleus. Nuclear IGF-1R associated with enhancer-like elements and increased transcription in reporter assays. The SUMOylation sites of IGF-1R were identified as three evolutionarily conserved lysine residues—Lys1025, Lys1100, and Lys1120—in the β subunit of the receptor. Mutation of these SUMO-1 sites abolished the ability of IGF-1R to translocate to the nucleus and activate transcription but did not alter its kinase-dependent signaling. Thus, we demonstrate a SUMOylation-mediated mechanism of IGF-1R signaling that has potential implications for gene regulation.