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Compartmentalization within cells provides spatial organization of signaling pathways and ensures the specificity of signaling. In vertebrates, the primary cilium, a tiny microtubule-based protrusion present on most cells, is essential for organizing events during Hedgehog signal transduction. When cells are stimulated with Hedgehog ligands, proteins in the pathway move in and out of the cilia. Protein kinase A (PKA), which is implicated in diverse cellular processes including protein trafficking, is a component of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PKA has been localized near primary cilia, at a location suitable for regulating the localization of other proteins in the pathway.