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This Podcast features a conversation with the senior author of a Research Article published in the 13 September 2011 issue of Science Signaling. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) both activate signaling through the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) cascade, but have different effects on PC12 neuroendocrine cells. Whereas NGF induces differentiaion, EGF stimulates proliferation. Juan Recio discusses his group’s finding that the ability of these growth factors to elicit distinct biological responses despite activating the same intracellular signaling pathway depends upon methylation of RAF.