Research ArticlePhysiology

Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase γ Inhibits Cardiac GSK-3 Independently of Akt

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Sci. Signal.  22 Jan 2013:
Vol. 6, Issue 259, pp. ra4
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2003308

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Activation of cardiac phosphoinositide 3-kinase α (PI3Kα) by growth factors, such as insulin, or activation of PI3Kγ downstream of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors stimulates the activity of the kinase Akt, which phosphorylates and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). We found that PI3Kγ inhibited GSK-3 independently of the insulin-PI3Kα-Akt axis. Although insulin treatment activated Akt in PI3Kγ knockout mice, phosphorylation of GSK-3 was decreased compared to control mice. GSK-3 is activated when dephosphorylated by the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which is activated when methylated by the PP2A methyltransferase PPMT-1. PI3Kγ knockout mice showed increased activity of PPMT-1 and PP2A and enhanced nuclear export of the GSK-3 substrate NFATc3. GSK-3 inhibits cardiac hypertrophy, and the hearts of PI3Kγ knockout mice were smaller compared to those of wild-type mice. Cardiac overexpression of a catalytically inactive PI3Kγ (PI3Kγinact) transgene in PI3Kγ knockout mice reduced the activities of PPMT-1 and PP2A and increased phosphorylation of GSK-3. Furthermore, PI3Kγ knockout mice expressing the PI3Kγinact transgene had larger hearts than wild-type or PI3Kγ knockout mice. Our studies show that a kinase-independent function of PI3Kγ could directly inhibit GSK-3 function by preventing the PP2A–PPMT-1 interaction and that this inhibition of GSK-3 was independent of Akt.

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