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Posttranslational modification with small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) alters the function of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. SUMO-specific enzymes conjugate SUMOs to lysine residues in target proteins. Although proteomic studies have identified hundreds of sumoylated substrates, methods to identify the modified lysines on a proteomic scale are lacking. We developed a method that enabled proteome-wide identification of sumoylated lysines that involves the expression of polyhistidine (6His)–tagged SUMO2 with Thr90 mutated to Lys. Endoproteinase cleavage with Lys-C of 6His-SUMO2T90K–modified proteins from human cell lysates produced a diGly remnant on SUMO2T90K-conjugated lysines, enabling immunoprecipitation of SUMO2T90K–modified peptides and producing a unique mass-to-charge signature. Mass spectrometry analysis of SUMO-enriched peptides revealed more than 1000 sumoylated lysines in 539 proteins, including many functionally related proteins involved in cell cycle, transcription, and DNA repair. Not only can this strategy be used to study the dynamics of sumoylation and other potentially similar posttranslational modifications, but also, these data provide an unprecedented resource for future research on the role of sumoylation in cellular physiology and disease.