Research ArticleImmunology

Diacylglycerol kinase α establishes T cell polarity by shaping diacylglycerol accumulation at the immunological synapse

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Sci. Signal.  26 Aug 2014:
Vol. 7, Issue 340, pp. ra82
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2005287

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Abstract

Polarization of the T cell microtubule–organizing center (MTOC) to the immunological synapse between the T cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC) maintains the specificity of T cell effector responses by enabling directional secretion toward the APC. The reorientation of the MTOC is guided by a sharp gradient of the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), which is centered at the immunological synapse. We used a single-cell photoactivation approach to demonstrate that diacylglycerol kinase α (DGK-α), which catalyzes the conversion of DAG to phosphatidic acid, determined T cell polarity by limiting the diffusion of DAG. DGK-α–deficient T cells exhibited enlarged accumulations of DAG at the immunological synapse, as well as impaired reorientation of the MTOC. In contrast, T cells lacking the related isoform DGK-ζ did not display polarization defects. We also found that DGK-α localized preferentially to the periphery of the immunological synapse, suggesting that it constrained the area over which DAG accumulated. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity was required for the peripheral localization pattern of DGK-α, which suggests a link between DAG and phosphatidylinositol signaling during T cell activation. These results reveal a previously unappreciated function of DGK-α and provide insight into the mechanisms that determine lymphocyte polarity.

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