Editors' ChoiceImmunology

Resident Memory T Cells Sound the Alarm

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Sci. Signal.  07 Oct 2014:
Vol. 7, Issue 346, pp. ec279
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2005993

Immunological memory protects against reinfection. Resident memory T cells (TRM) are long lived and remain in the tissues where they first encountered a pathogen (see the Perspective by Carbone and Gebhardt). Schenkel et al. and Ariotti et al. found that CD8+ TRM cells act like first responders in the female reproductive tissue or the skin of mice upon antigen reencounter. By secreting inflammatory proteins, TRM cells rapidly activated local immune cells to respond, so much so that they protected against infection with an unrelated pathogen. Iijima and Iwasaki found that CD4+ TRM cells protected mice against reinfection with intravaginal herpes simplex virus 2.

J. M. Schenkel, K. A. Fraser, L. K. Beura, K. E. Pauken, V. Vezys, D. Masopust, Resident memory CD8 T cells trigger protective innate and adaptive immune responses. Science 346, 98–101 (2014). [Abstract] [Full Text]

S. Ariotti, M. A. Hogenbirk, F. E. Dijkgraaf, L. L. Visser, M. E. Hoekstra, J.-Y. Song, H. Jacobs, J. B. Haanen, T. N. Schumacher, Skin-resident memory CD8+ T cells trigger a state of tissue-wide pathogen alert. Science 346, 101–105 (2014). [Abstract] [Full Text]

N. Iijima, A. Iwasaki, A local macrophage chemokine network sustains protective tissue-resident memory CD4 T cells. Science 346, 93–98 (2014). [Abstract] [Full Text]

F. R. Carbone, T. Gebhardt, A neighborhood watch upholds local immune protection. Science 346, 40–41 (2014). [Abstract] [Full Text]