Research ArticleNeurodegeneration

Activation of MyD88-dependent TLR1/2 signaling by misfolded α-synuclein, a protein linked to neurodegenerative disorders

Sci. Signal.  12 May 2015:
Vol. 8, Issue 376, pp. ra45
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2005965

You are currently viewing the abstract.

View Full Text
As a service to the community, AAAS/Science has made this article free with registration.

Abstract

Synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease and diffuse Lewy body disease, are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by selective neuronal death, abnormal accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein, and sustained microglial activation. In addition to inducing neuronal toxicity, higher-ordered oligomeric α-synuclein causes proinflammatory responses in the brain parenchyma by triggering microglial activation, which may exacerbate pathogenic processes by establishing a chronic neuroinflammatory milieu. We found that higher-ordered oligomeric α-synuclein induced a proinflammatory microglial phenotype by directly engaging the heterodimer TLR1/2 (Toll-like receptor 1 and 2) at the cell membrane, leading to the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) and the increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor–α) and IL-1β (interleukin-1β) in a MyD88-dependent manner. Blocking signaling through the TLR1/2 heterodimer with the small-molecule inhibitor CU-CPT22 reduced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and secretion of TNF-α from cultured primary mouse microglia. Candesartan cilexetil, a drug approved for treating hypertension and that inhibits the expression of TLR2, reversed the activated proinflammatory phenotype of primary microglia exposed to oligomeric α-synuclein, supporting the possibility of repurposing this drug for synucleinopathies.

View Full Text