Editors' ChoiceHost-Microbe Interactions

Gut microbes make T cells keep the peace

Sci. Signal.  01 Sep 2015:
Vol. 8, Issue 392, pp. ec251
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aad3212

Our guts harbor trillions of microbial inhabitants, some of which regulate the types of immune cells that are present in the gut. For instance, Clostridium species of bacteria induce a type of T cell that promotes tolerance between the host and its microbial contents. Ohnmacht et al. and Sefik et al. characterized a population of gut regulatory T cells in mice, which required gut microbiota to survive. Multiple bacterial species of the microbiota could induce transcription factor–expressing regulatory T cells that helped maintain immune homeostasis. Mice engineered to lack these transcription factors exhibited enhanced susceptibility to colonic inflammation and had elevated amounts of proinflammatory molecules associated with allergies (see the Perspective by Hegazy and Powrie).

C. Ohnmacht, J.-H. Park, S. Cording, J. B. Wing, K. Atarashi, Y. Obata, V. Gaboriau-Routhiau, R. Marques, S. Dulauroy, M. Fedoseeva, M. Busslinger, N. Cerf-Bensussan, I. G. Boneca, D. Voehringer, K. Hase, K. Honda, S. Sakaguchi, G. Eberl, The microbiota regulates type 2 immunity through RORγt+ T cells. Science 349, 989–993 (2015). [Abstract] [Full Text]

E. Sefik, N. Geva-Zatorsky, S. Oh, L. Konnikova, D. Zemmour, A. M. McGuire, D. Burzyn, A. Ortiz-Lopez, M. Lobera, J. Yang, S. Ghosh, A. Earl, S. B. Snapper, R. Jupp, D. Kasper, D. Mathis, C. Benoist, Individual intestinal symbionts induce a distinct population of RORγ+ regulatory T cells. Science 349, 993–997 (2015). [Abstract] [Full Text]

A. N. Hegazy, F. Powrie, Microbiota RORgulates intestinal suppressor T cells. Science 349, 929–930 (2015). [Summary] [Full Text]