Dialing down allergic responses
The receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 dampens allergic responses and enhances immunity to intestinal worms.
P. Y. Chan, E. A. Carrera Silva, D. De Kouchkovsky, L. D. Joannas, L. Hao, D. Hu, S. Huntsman, C. Eng, P. Licona-Limón, J. S. Weinstein, D. R. Herbert, J. E. Craft, R. A. Flavell, S. Repetto, J. Correale, E. G. Burchard, D. G. Torgerson, S. Ghosh, C. V. Rothlin, The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity. Science 352, 99–103 (2016). [Abstract]
Long noncoding RNAs in inflammation
A specific RNA molecule can suppress inflammatory gene expression and may protect from gluten intolerance.
A. Castellanos-Rubio, N. Fernandez-Jimenez, R. Kratchmarov, X. Luo, G. Bhagat, P. H. R. Green, R. Schneider, M. Kiledjian, J. R. Bilbao, S. Ghosh. A long noncoding RNA associated with susceptibility to celiac disease. Science 352, 91–95 (2016). [Abstract]
M. Huarte, A lncRNA links genomic variation with celiac disease. Science 352, 43–44 (2016). [Abstract]
CELL DEATH PATHWAYS
Apoptosis, necrosis, and pyroptosis
D. Wallach, T.-B. Kang, C. P. Dillon, D. R. Green, Programmed necrosis in inflammation: Toward identification of the effector molecules. Science 352, aaf2154 (2016). [Abstract]
Thriving on a breath of low oxygen
Chronic exposure to low oxygen levels improves the health and extends the survival of mice that model a human mitochondrial disease.
I. H. Jain, L. Zazzeron, R. Goli, K. Alexa, S. Schatzman-Bone, H. Dhillon, O. Goldberger, J. Peng, O. Shalem, N. E. Sanjana, F. Zhang, W. Goessling, W. M. Zapol, V. K. Mootha, Hypoxia as a therapy for mitochondrial disease. Science 352, 54–61 (2016). [Abstract]
E. A. Shoubridge, Mitochondrial disease therapy from thin air? Science 352, 31–32 (2016).[Abstract]
Programming circuitry for synthetic biology
A programming language is devised for biological regulatory circuits.
A. A. K. Nielsen, B. S. Der, J. Shin, P. Vaidyanathan, V. Paralanov, E. A. Strychalski, D. Ross, D. Densmore, C. A. Voigt, Genetic circuit design automation. Science 352, aac7341 (2016). [Abstract]