Glossary
Abbreviations and names of components used in the review by J.S. Gutkind.
Abbreviation Designation
AP1 Activating protein 1, a transcription factor
ARF ADP ribosylating factor
ASK1 Apoptosis-stimulated kinase 1
ATF1 Activating transcription factor 1
ATF2 Activating transcription factor 2
ß{gamma} The ß{gamma} heterodimer of G proteins
BMK1 Big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5
Btk Bruton's tyrosine kinase
c-fos A transcription factor proto-oncogene
c-jun A transcription factor proto-oncogene
c-Myc A transcription factor
cAMP Adenosine 3��,5��-monophosphate
CBP CREB binding protein
Cdc24 A yeast guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42
Cdc42 A small GTPase
CHOP C/EBP homologous protein
CREB cAMP-responsive element binding protein
Crk An adapter protein
CSBP-1 A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, also known as p38{alpha}
Csk COOH-terminal Src family kinase, phosphorylates a negative-regulatory site of c-Src
DAG Diacylglycerol
Dbl A guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 and Rho
DH domain Dbl homology domain
EGF Epidermal growth factor
EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor
Elk-1 A transcription factor
Elk-2 A transcription factor
Epac A guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1
ERK Extracellular signal-regulated kinase, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase
ERKs Extracellular signal-regulated kinases, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinases
ERK1 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, also known as p44MAPK
ERK2 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, also known as p42MAPK
ERK5 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5, also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
ERK6 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 6
FAK Focal adhesion kinase
fMLP Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine
Fus3 A yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in the pheromone response
G12 A family of G protein {alpha} subunits that includes G{alpha}12 and G{alpha}13
G{alpha} The {alpha} subunit of G proteins
G{alpha}12 The G protein {alpha} subunit that controls Rho GTPase activity
G{alpha}13 A G protein {alpha} subunit of the G12 family
G{alpha}gust Gustducin, a G protein {alpha} subunit involved in taste
G{alpha}i1 A G protein {alpha} subunit of the G{alpha}i family
G{alpha}i2 A G protein {alpha} subunit of the G{alpha}i family
G{alpha}i3 A G protein {alpha} subunit of the G{alpha}i family
G{alpha}o A G protein {alpha} subunit of the G{alpha}i family
G{alpha}t Transducin, a G protein {alpha} subunit involved in vision
G{alpha}z A G protein {alpha} subunit
{gamma} The ß{gamma} heterodimer of G proteins
Gi The family of G protein {alpha} subunits that can inhibit adenylyl cyclases; includes G{alpha} i1, G{alpha}i2, G{alpha}i3, G{alpha}o, transducin ({alpha}t), and gustducin ({alpha}gust)
Gq The family of G protein {alpha} subunits that controls the activity of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases
Gs The family of G protein {alpha} subunits that can stimulate adenylyl cyclases
G proteins Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins
GAP GTPase-activating protein
GCK Germinal center kinase
GEF Guanine-nucleotide exchange factor
gep G{alpha}12 oncogene
gip2 G{alpha}i2 oncogene
GPA1 A yeast G{alpha}
GPCR G protein-coupled receptor
GPCRs G protein-coupled receptors
Grb2 An adapter protein in the Ras pathway
GRF Guanine nucleotide-releasing factor
GRK G protein-coupled receptor kinase
GRP Guanine nucleotide-releasing protein
gsp G{alpha}s oncogene
HB-EGF Heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor
HCMV Human cytomegalovirus
HOG1p High-osmolarity glycerol response kinase, a yeast p38 homolog of mitogen-activated protein kinase
HVS Herpesvirus saimiri
IP3 Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
JIP c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitory protein
JNKs c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases, related to mitogen-activated protein kinases, also known as stress-activated protein kinases
JSAP A c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitory protein
KSHV Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus
Ksr A mammalian scaffold protein
KSR-1 Kinase suppressor of Ras-1
Kss1 Kinase suppressor of SST2, a yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in filamentous growth
LHRH Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone
LPA Lysophosphatidic acid
Lyn Src-like tyrosine kinase
MAPK Mitogen-activated protein kinase, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, or a member of the family that includes the mitogen-activated protein kinases or extracellular signal-regulated kinases, stress-activated protein kinases or p38s, and the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases
MAPKs Mitogen-activated protein kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases, or the family that includes the mitogen-activated protein kinases or extracellular signal-regulated kinases, stress-activated protein kinases or p38s, and the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases
MAPKAPKs Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinases
MAPKK Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase
MAPKKK Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase
Max A transcription factor
MEF2 Myocite enhancer factor 2, a family of transcription factors
MEF2A Myocite enhancer factor 2A
MEF2C Myocite enhancer factor 2C
MEK Mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
MEK1 Mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1
MEK2 Mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 2
MEKK1 Mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 1
MEKK2 Mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 2
MEKK3 Mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 3
MEKK4 Mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 4
MEKK5 Mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 5
MKK3 Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3
MKK4 Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4, also known as Sek or c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase kinase 1
MKK6 Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 6
MKK7 Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7
MLK3 Mixed-lineage kinase 3
Mnk1 Mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase 1
Mnk2 Mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase 2
MP1 A mammalian scaffold protein
MSK1 Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1
MUK Mitogen-activated protein kinase upstream kinase
NFAT4 Nuclear factor of activated T cells 4
p38 A mammalian homolog of high-osmolarity glycerol response kinase, a mitogen-activated protein kinase; also known as stress-activated protein kinase
p42MAPK Mitogen-activated protein kinase of 42kD, also known as extracellular-regulated protein kinase 2
p44MAPK Mitogen-activated protein kinase of 44kD, also known as extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1
PAF Platelet-activating factor
PAK p21-activated protein kinase
PAK1 p21-activated protein kinase 1
Pbs2 A yeast scaffold protein with high-osmolarity glycerol response kinase activity
PDGF Platelet-derived growth factor
PDZ domain Area of homology to PSD-95, Discs large septate junction protein, and ZO-1
PH domain Pleckstrin homology domain
PI3K Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
PI3Ks Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases: includes PI3K{alpha}, PI3Kß, and PI3K{gamma}
PIP3 Phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate
PKA cAMP-dependent protein kinase
PKC Protein kinase C
PLC Phospholipase C
PLC-ß Phospholipase C-ß
PTB Phosphotyrosine binding domain
Pyk2 A nonreceptor tyrosine kinase
Rac A small GTPase
Rac1 A small GTPase
Raf A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase
A-Raf A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase
B-Raf A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase
Raf-1 A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase
Rap1 A small GTPase
Ras A small GTPase
RGS Regulator of G protein signaling
Rho A small GTPase
RSK Ribosome S6 kinase
Sap-1 Serum response factor accessory protein-1
SAPKs Stress-activated protein kinases, also known as p38s
SAPK3 A stress-activated protein kinase, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 6 or p38{gamma}
SAPK4 A stress-activated protein kinase, also known as p38{delta}
SEK Stress-activated protein kinase kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase
SEM5 Caenorhabditis elegans Grb2 homolog
SH2 domain Src-homology 2 domain
SH3 domain Src-homology 3 domain
Shc An adapter protein in the Ras pathway
SOS Son of Sevenless, a Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing factor
Src A nonreceptor tyrosine kinase
SRE Serum response element
SRF Serum response factor
Ste4 A yeast Gß
Ste18 A yeast G{gamma}
Ste5 A yeast scaffold protein
Ste7 A yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
Ste11 A yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase
Ste20 A yeast kinase
Syk A nonreceptor tyrosine kinase
TAK Transforming growth factor-ß-activated kinase
TAK1 Transforming growth factor-ß-activated kinase 1
TCF Ternary complex factor
Tiam1 A guanine nucleotide-releasing factor for Rac
TGF-{alpha} Transforming growth factor-{alpha}
Tpl2 Tumor progression locus 2, also known as Cot
TRH Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
TSK T cell-specific tyrosine kinase
Zap70 A nonreceptor tyrosine kinase