Animation. Chloride Concentration and pH Along the Endosomal Pathway

Victor Faundez1andH. Criss Hartzell1*

1Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322.


*Corresponding author. E-mail: criss{at}

Animation. This animation depicts three membrane trafficking routes in a mammalian neurosecretory cell, highlighting the changing Cl concentrations and pH values of the various endosomal subcompartments. Once you have clicked the "Play" button to start the animation, you can choose to highlight the pathway for receptor recycling to the plasma membrane, the lysosomal pathway, or the pathway for synaptic vesicle recycling (in neurons). Each compartment shown has a distinctive pH and [Cl], with values for pH indicated in blue and values for Cl indicated in orange. The intravesicular [Cl] in synaptic vesicles, large dense core vesicles, and lysosomes has not yet been determined. This animation was created by Julie White, under the scientific oversight of Criss Hartzell and Victor Faundez.


Technical Details

Format: Shockwave Flash Object (swf file)

Size: 88 kb

Requirements: This animation will play with Macromedia Flash 5 (


Citation: V. Faundez, H. C. Hartzell, Intracellular chloride channels: Determinants of function in the endosomal pathway. Sci. STKE2004, re8 (2004).