Chloride Concentration and pH Along the Endosomal Pathway
Victor Faundez1,2, and H. Criss Hartzell1, Elizabeth M. Adler2*
*Corresponding author: E-mail:
This animation depicts three membrane trafficking routes in a mammalian neurosecretory cell, highlighting the changing Cl– concentrations and pH values of the various endosomal subcompartments. The focus is on the endocytotic pathway and the different paths taken by clathrin-coated vesicles. Once you have clicked the "Play" button to start the animation, you can choose to highlight the pathway for receptor recycling to the plasma membrane, the lysosomal pathway, or the pathway for synaptic vesicle recycling (in neurons). Each compartment shown has a distinctive pH and [Cl–], with values for pH indicated in blue and values for Cl– indicated in orange. The differences in each of the endocytic compartments are represented by changing colored bars at the top. The intravesicular [Cl–] in synaptic vesicles, large dense core vesicles, and lysosomes has not yet been determined. Cl– influx helps regulate pH in the vesicle lumen, and the changes in [Cl–] and pH likely help regulate membrane trafficking. This animation will be useful for teaching cell biology and highlighting both the dynamic nature of vesicular traffic and the changes in ionic balance associated with different cellular compartments. This animation was created by Julie White, under the scientific oversight of Criss Hartzell and Victor Faundez.
C. Hartzell and N. Germick have created a song to represent these processes; download this music in mp3 format to accompany the animation showing endosomal trafficking [Access Music].
Learning Resource Type: Animation
Context: Undergraduate upper division, Graduate, Professional (degree program)
Intended Users: Teacher, learner
Intended Educational Use: Teach, learn
Discipline: Cell biology, neurobiology
Keywords: movie, signal transduction, cell signaling, chloride, pH, endocytosis, synaptic vesicle, endosome
Format: Shockwave Flash Object (swf file)
Size: 88 KB
Requirements: Macromedia Flash 5 (http://www.macromedia.com/downloads/)
Review: V. Faundez, H. C. Hartzell, Intracellular chloride channels: Determinants of function in the endosomal pathway. Sci. STKE 2004, re8 (2004).
Limits for Use
Rights: This material may be downloaded, printed, linked to, and/or redistributed without modification for noncommercial, course teaching purposes only, provided credit to STKE is included by listing the citation for the teaching resource.
Citation: V. Faundez, H. C. Hartzell, E. M. Adler, Chloride Concentration and pH Along the Endosomal Pathway. Sci. STKE2004, tr2 (2004).