Signaling During Pathogen Infection (Movies)

Sylvia Münter1,2, Michael Way2*, andFreddy Frischknecht1*

1Department of Parasitology, Hygiene Insitute, University of Heidelberg Medical School, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
2Cell Motility Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK.


*Corresponding authors. Telephone, 49-6221-566537; fax, 49-6221-564643; e-mail, freddy.frischknecht{at} (F.F.); telephone, 44-207-269 3733; fax, 44-207-269 3581; e-mail, Michael.Way{at} (M.W.)


These three movies show the actin-based movement of vaccinia virus in two different cell types. Vaccinia virus forms actin tails at the plasma membrane of the host cell. The cells in these movies are expressing actin that is labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and are infected with vaccinia virus. Movies 1 and 2 were obtained with a confocal microscope, which allows spatial resolution of the formation of the actin tails. Movie 3 was obtained using a wide-field microscope, which allows the speed of the actin-based movement of the virus to be monitored more precisely, but does a priori not provide spatial information along the z-axis. Movie 1 and movie 2 were recorded by Ernst Stelzer, Freddy Frischknecht and Michael Way during the 1999 EMBO course "Biophysical and Mathematical Approaches to Cell Biology" at EMBL, Heidelberg, Germany. Movie 3 was recorded by Jens Rietdorf and Michael Way.

Movie 1. Confocal movie focusing on the bottom of an osteosarcoma cell expressing GFP-actin 12 hours after infection with vaccinia virus. The movie reveals the dynamic behavior of vaccinia-induced actin tails that move in a processive fashion at ~0.2 μm/sec at the interface between the host plasma membrane and the glass slide.

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Movie 2. Confocal z-stack through the entire osteosarcoma cell from Movie 1 shows that actin tails are only formed at the surface of the cell.

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Movie 3. Time-lapse movie of vaccinia virus infected HeLa cells expressing GFP-actin recorded with a wide-field microscope.

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Technical Details

Format: .mov files

Size: 2.7 MB (Movie 1); 1.8 (Movie 2); 1.3 MB (Movie 3)

Requirements: The movies are viewable using QuickTime, which can be downloaded from Apple's QuickTime Site (


Citation: S. Münter, M. Way, F. Frischknecht, Signaling during pathogen infection. Sci. STKE2006, re5 (2006).

© 2006 American Association for the Advancement of Science