Charged Membranes (Animations)
Jack D. Thatcher*
Animation 1. Na,K ATPase. This animation illustrates how the Na+/K+-ATPase pump is used to store energy across plasma membranes by establishing an electrochemical gradient.
[Download Animation in FLASH format for PC] (link to the file called Na,K ATPase.swf)
[Download Animation for Mac] (link to the file called Na,K ATPase.zip)
Animation 2. ATP synthesizing complexes. This animation illustrates how ATP synthesizing complexes transfer energy from a charged membrane to ATP.
[Download Animation in FLASH format for PC] (link to the file called ATP Synthesizing Complexes.swf)
[Download Animation for Mac] (link to the file called ATP Synthesizing Complexes.zip)
Animation 3. Action potential. This FLASH animation illustrates how energy from a charged membrane is used to propagate signal along the axon of a neuron.
[Download Animation in FLASH format for PC] (link to the file called Action Potential.swf)
[Download Animation for Mac] (link to the file called Action Potential.zip)
To open the animations with a Windows operating system using Internet Explorer, follow these steps:
(1) Click the link for the animation.
(2) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file." If this box does not appear, proceed to step four. If it does, choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK.
(3) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK.
(4) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window, a yellow bar will appear that reads: "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this Web page from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options�." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button.
(5) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content."
(6) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes."
(7) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window.
(8) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation. On most screens, unless specified, clicking anywhere on the screen advances the action.
To play the animations on a Mac, unzip the file and double click the icon for the application.
Format: FLASH animation
Size: 82 kb (Na,K ATPase.swf), 150 kb (Action Potential.swf), 465 kb (ATP Synthesizing Complexes.swf)
Requirements: Flash-enabled Web browser
Limits for Use
Rights: This material may be downloaded for noncommercial, course-teaching purposes only, provided credit to Science Signaling is included by listing the citation for the Teaching Resource.
Citation: J. D. Thatcher, Charged membranes. Sci. Signal. 6, tr6 (2013).