Error message

No crossref credentials set for sci

Contribution of Human α-Defensin 1, 2, and 3 to the Anti-HIV-1 Activity of CD8 Antiviral Factor

Science, 1 November 2002
Vol. 298, Issue 5595, p. 995-1000
DOI: 10.1126/science.1076185

Contribution of Human α-Defensin 1, 2, and 3 to the Anti-HIV-1 Activity of CD8 Antiviral Factor

  1. Linqi Zhang1,*,
  2. Wenjie Yu1,
  3. Tian He1,
  4. Jian Yu1,
  5. Rebecca E. Caffrey2,
  6. Enrique A. Dalmasso2,
  7. Siyu Fu2,
  8. Thang Pham2,
  9. Jianfeng Mei2,
  10. Jaclyn J. Ho1,
  11. Wenyong Zhang1,
  12. Peter Lopez1,
  13. David D. Ho1,*
  1. 1 Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.
  2. 2 Ciphergen Biosystems, Inc., 6611 Dumbarton Circle, Fremont, CA 94555, USA.

Abstract

It has been known since 1986 that CD8 T lymphocytes from certain HIV-1–infected individuals who are immunologically stable secrete a soluble factor, termed CAF, that suppresses HIV-1 replication. However, the identity of CAF remained elusive despite an extensive search. By means of a protein-chip technology, we identified a cluster of proteins that were secreted when CD8 T cells from long-term nonprogressors with HIV-1 infection were stimulated. These proteins were identified as α-defensin 1, 2, and 3 on the basis of specific antibody recognition and amino acid sequencing. CAF activity was eliminated or neutralized by an antibody specific for human α-defensins. Synthetic and purified preparations of α-defensins also inhibited the replication of HIV-1 isolates in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that α-defensin 1, 2, and 3 collectively account for much of the anti–HIV-1 activity of CAF that is not attributable to β-chemokines.

  • * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: lzhang{at}adarc.org (L.Z.); dho{at}adarc.org (D.D.H.)

  • Received for publication 16 July 2002.
  • Accepted for publication 17 September 2002.

Citation:

L. Zhang, W. Yu, T. He, J. Yu, R. E. Caffrey, E. A. Dalmasso, S. Fu, T. Pham, J. Mei, J. J. Ho, W. Zhang, P. Lopez, and D. D. Ho, Contribution of Human α-Defensin 1, 2, and 3 to the Anti-HIV-1 Activity of CD8 Antiviral Factor. Science 298, 995-1000 (2002).

The Human Alpha Defensin HD5 Neutralizes JC Polyomavirus Infection by Reducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Traffic and Stabilizing the Viral Capsid
S. R. Zins, C. D. S. Nelson, M. S. Maginnis, R. Banerjee, B. A. O'Hara, and W. J. Atwood
J. Virol. 88, 948-960 (15 January 2014)

Transcriptional Profiling of Experimental CD8+ Lymphocyte Depletion in Rhesus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239
S. E. Bosinger, S. P. Jochems, K. A. Folkner, T. L. Hayes, N. R. Klatt, and G. Silvestri
J. Virol. 87, 433-443 (1 January 2013)

Direct identification of bacteria in urine samples by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and relevance of defensins as interfering factors
H. L. Kohling, A. Bittner, K.-D. Muller, J. Buer, M. Becker, H. Rubben, A. W. Rettenmeier, and F. Mosel
J Med Microbiol 61, 339-344 (1 March 2012)

Humanized {theta}-Defensins (Retrocyclins) Enhance Macrophage Performance and Protect Mice from Experimental Anthrax Infections
S. Welkos, C. K. Cote, U. Hahn, O. Shastak, J. Jedermann, J. Bozue, G. Jung, P. Ruchala, P. Pratikhya, T. Tang et al.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55, 4238-4250 (1 September 2011)

Modulation of human {beta}-defensin-1 (hBD-1) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), monocytes, and epithelial cells by influenza virus, Herpes simplex virus, and Sendai virus and its possible role in innate immunity
L. K. Ryan, J. Dai, Z. Yin, N. Megjugorac, V. Uhlhorn, S. Yim, K. D. Schwartz, J. M. Abrahams, G. Diamond, P. Fitzgerald-Bocarsly et al.
J. Leukoc. Biol. 90, 343-356 (1 August 2011)

Comparative Genomics and Evolution of the Alpha-Defensin Multigene Family in Primates
S. Das, N. Nikolaidis, H. Goto, C. McCallister, J. Li, M. Hirano, and M. D. Cooper
Mol Biol Evol 27, 2333-2343 (1 October 2010)

Swine intestine antimicrobial peptides inhibit infectious bronchitis virus infectivity in chick embryos
Q. Sun, K. Wang, R. She, W. Ma, F. Peng, and H. Jin
Poultry Science 89, 464-469 (1 March 2010)

Human defensins activate monocyte-derived dendritic cells, promote the production of proinflammatory cytokines, and up-regulate the surface expression of CD91
P. Presicce, S. Giannelli, A. Taddeo, M. L. Villa, and S. Della Bella
J. Leukoc. Biol. 86, 941-948 (1 October 2009)

Human {alpha}-Defensins Inhibit Hemolysis Mediated by Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysins
R. I. Lehrer, G. Jung, P. Ruchala, W. Wang, E. D. Micewicz, A. J. Waring, E. J. Gillespie, K. A. Bradley, A. J. Ratner, R. F. Rest et al.
Infect. Immun. 77, 4028-4040 (1 September 2009)

Expression of a Modified Form of CD4 Results in the Release of an Anti-HIV Factor Derived from the Env Sequence
I. Zaldivar, M. A. Munoz-Fernandez, B. Alarcon, and E. San Jose
J. Immunol. 183, 1188-1196 (15 July 2009)

Noncytotoxic Suppression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transcription by Exosomes Secreted from CD8+ T Cells
A. Tumne, V. S. Prasad, Y. Chen, D. B. Stolz, K. Saha, D. M. Ratner, M. Ding, S. C. Watkins, and P. Gupta
J. Virol. 83, 4354-4364 (1 May 2009)

Early Divergence in Neutrophil Apoptosis between Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections of Nonhuman Primates
C. Elbim, V. Monceaux, Y. M. Mueller, M. G. Lewis, S. Francois, O. Diop, K. Akarid, B. Hurtrel, M.-A. Gougerot-Pocidalo, Y. Levy et al.
J. Immunol. 181, 8613-8623 (15 December 2008)

Host Defense Peptides in the Oral Cavity and the Lung: Similarities and Differences
G. Diamond, N. Beckloff, and L.K. Ryan
JDR 87, 915-927 (1 October 2008)

Role of Human {beta}-Defensin-2 during Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}/NF-{kappa}B-mediated Innate Antiviral Response against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus
S. Kota, A. Sabbah, T. H. Chang, R. Harnack, Y. Xiang, X. Meng, and S. Bose
J Biol Chem 283, 22417-22429 (15 August 2008)

Increased {alpha}-Defensins as a Blood Marker for Schizophrenia Susceptibility
R. M. Craddock, J. T. Huang, E. Jackson, N. Harris, E. F. Torrey, M. Herberth, and S. Bahn
MCP 7, 1204-1213 (1 July 2008)

Leukotriene B4 Induces Release of Antimicrobial Peptides in Lungs of Virally Infected Mice
E. Gaudreault, and J. Gosselin
J. Immunol. 180, 6211-6221 (1 May 2008)

A novel horse {alpha}-defensin: gene transcription, recombinant expression and characterization of the structure and function
O. Bruhn, P. Regenhard, M. Michalek, S. Paul, C. Gelhaus, S. Jung, G. Thaller, R. Podschun, M. Leippe, J. Grotzinger et al.
Biochem. J. 407, 267-276 (15 October 2007)

{beta}-Defensin Inhibits Influenza Virus Replication by Cell-Mediated Mechanism(s)
M. Salvatore, A. Garcia-Sastre, P. Ruchala, R. I. Lehrer, T. Chang, and M. E. Klotman
The Journal of Infectious Disease 196, 835-843 (15 September 2007)

Detection and Significance of Serum Protein Marker of Hirschsprung Disease
J.-x. Wang, P. Qin, Q.-l. Liu, H.-y. Yang, Y.-z. Fan, J.-k. Yu, and S. Zheng
Pediatrics 120, e56-e60 (1 July 2007)

Leukotriene B4 Triggers the In Vitro and In Vivo Release of Potent Antimicrobial Agents
L. Flamand, M. J. Tremblay, and P. Borgeat
J. Immunol. 178, 8036-8045 (15 June 2007)

beta-Defensin overexpression induces progressive muscle degeneration in mice
Y. Yamaguchi, T. Nagase, T. Tomita, K. Nakamura, S. Fukuhara, T. Amano, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ide, M. Suzuki, S. Teramoto et al.
Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 292, C2141-C2149 (1 June 2007)

{alpha}-defensins block the early steps of HIV-1 infection: interference with the binding of gp120 to CD4
L. Furci, F. Sironi, M. Tolazzi, L. Vassena, and P. Lusso
Blood 109, 2928-2936 (1 April 2007)

Cholesterol-Depleting Statin Drugs Protect Postmitotically Differentiated Human Neurons against Ethanol- and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Induced Oxidative Stress In Vitro
E. Acheampong, Z. Parveen, A. Mengistu, N. Ngoubilly, B. Wigdahl, A. S. Lossinsky, R. J. Pomerantz, and M. Mukhtar
J. Virol. 81, 1492-1501 (1 February 2007)

From the cover: Serum proteome profiling detects myelodysplastic syndromes and identifies CXC chemokine ligands 4 and 7 as markers for advanced disease
M. Aivado, D. Spentzos, U. Germing, G. Alterovitz, X.-Y. Meng, F. Grall, A. A. N. Giagounidis, G. Klement, U. Steidl, H. H. Otu et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 1307-1312 (23 January 2007)

Human {alpha}- and {beta}-Defensins Block Multiple Steps in Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
E. Hazrati, B. Galen, W. Lu, W. Wang, Y. Ouyang, M. J. Keller, R. I. Lehrer, and B. C. Herold
J. Immunol. 177, 8658-8666 (15 December 2006)

Induction of the Antimicrobial Peptide CRAMP in the Blood-Brain Barrier and Meninges after Meningococcal Infection
P. Bergman, L. Johansson, H. Wan, A. Jones, R. L. Gallo, G. H. Gudmundsson, T. Hokfelt, A.-B. Jonsson, and B. Agerberth
Infect. Immun. 74, 6982-6991 (1 December 2006)

Opposing roles of dendritic cell subsets in HIV-1 infection
J. Stebbing, and M. Bower
Blood 108, 1785-1786 (15 September 2006)

Opposing roles of blood myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in HIV-1 infection of T cells: transmission facilitation versus replication inhibition
F. Groot, T. M. M. van Capel, M. L. Kapsenberg, B. Berkhout, and E. C. de Jong
Blood 108, 1957-1964 (15 September 2006)

Histatin 5-Derived Peptide with Improved Fungicidal Properties Enhances Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by Promoting Viral Entry
F. Groot, R. W. Sanders, O. ter Brake, K. Nazmi, E. C. I. Veerman, J. G. M. Bolscher, and B. Berkhout
J. Virol. 80, 9236-9243 (15 September 2006)

Defensins HNP1 and HBD2 Stimulation of Wound-Associated Responses in Human Conjunctival Fibroblasts.
J. Li, M. Raghunath, D. Tan, R. R. Lareu, Z. Chen, and R. W. Beuerman
IOVS 47, 3811-3819 (1 September 2006)

Selective Profiling of Proteins in Lung Cancer Cells from Fine-Needle Aspirates by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
J. M. Amann, P. Chaurand, A. Gonzalez, J. A. Mobley, P. P. Massion, D. P. Carbone, and R. M. Caprioli
Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 5142-5150 (1 September 2006)

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Protein 100 Triggers Innate Immunity and Production of {beta}-Defensin and the 18-Kilodalton Cationic Antimicrobial Protein through the Fibronectin-Integrin Pathway in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells
K. Ouhara, H. Komatsuzawa, H. Shiba, Y. Uchida, T. Kawai, K. Sayama, K. Hashimoto, M. A. Taubman, H. Kurihara, M. Sugai et al.
Infect. Immun. 74, 5211-5220 (1 September 2006)

Innate Defense against Influenza A Virus: Activity of Human Neutrophil Defensins and Interactions of Defensins with Surfactant Protein D
K. L. Hartshorn, M. R. White, T. Tecle, U. Holmskov, and E. C. Crouch
J. Immunol. 176, 6962-6972 (1 June 2006)

PU.1 and a TTTAAA Element in the Myeloid Defensin-1 Promoter Create an Operational TATA Box That Can Impose Cell Specificity onto TFIID Function
M. Yaneva, S. Kippenberger, N. Wang, Q. Su, M. McGarvey, A. Nazarian, L. Lacomis, H. Erdjument-Bromage, and P. Tempst
J. Immunol. 176, 6906-6917 (1 June 2006)

APO-AII IS AN ELEVATED BIOMARKER OF CHRONIC NON-HUMAN PRIMATE ETHANOL SELF-ADMINISTRATION
W. M. FREEMAN, R. S. GOOCH, M. E. LULL, T. J. WORST, S. J. WALKER, A. S. L. XU, H. GREEN, P. J. PIERRE, K. A. GRANT, K. E. VRANA et al.
Alcohol Alcohol 41, 300-305 (1 May 2006)

Role of Human {beta}-defensins in HIV Infection
A. Weinberg, M.E. Quinones-Mateu, and M.M. Lederman
ADR 19, 42-48 (1 April 2006)

Oral Mucosal Expression of HIV-1 Receptors, Co-receptors, and {alpha}-defensins: Tableau of Resistance or Susceptibility to HIV Infection?
C.W. Cutler, and R. Jotwani
ADR 19, 49-51 (1 April 2006)

Induction of Positive Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses by a Prime-Boost Vaccine Encoded with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus gag/pol
K. Someya, Y. Ami, T. Nakasone, Y. Izumi, K. Matsuo, S. Horibata, K.-Q. Xin, H. Yamamoto, K. Okuda, N. Yamamoto et al.
J. Immunol. 176, 1784-1795 (1 February 2006)

Human {alpha}-defensins block papillomavirus infection
C. B. Buck, P. M. Day, C. D. Thompson, J. Lubkowski, W. Lu, D. R. Lowy, and J. T. Schiller
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 1516-1521 (31 January 2006)

Changes in Soluble Factor-Mediated CD8+ Cell-Derived Antiviral Activity in Cynomolgus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251: Relationship to Biological Markers of Progression
V. Dioszeghy, K. Benlhassan-Chahour, B. Delache, N. Dereuddre-Bosquet, C. Aubenque, G. Gras, R. Le Grand, and B. Vaslin
J. Virol. 80, 236-245 (1 January 2006)

Human {beta}-Defensins Suppress Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Potential Role in Mucosal Protection
L. Sun, C. M. Finnegan, T. Kish-Catalone, R. Blumenthal, P. Garzino-Demo, G. M. La Terra Maggiore, S. Berrone, C. Kleinman, Z. Wu, S. Abdelwahab et al.
J. Virol. 79, 14318-14329 (15 November 2005)

Increased Expression of TLR3 in Lymph Nodes during Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Implications for Inflammation and Immunodeficiency
S. K. Sanghavi, and T. A. Reinhart
J. Immunol. 175, 5314-5323 (15 October 2005)

Adenovirus-Directed Ocular Innate Immunity: The Role of Conjunctival Defensin-like Chemokines (IP-10, I-TAC) and Phagocytic Human Defensin-{alpha}
S. A. K. Harvey, E. G. Romanowski, K. A. Yates, and Y. J. Gordon
IOVS 46, 3657-3665 (1 October 2005)

Influences of Blood Sample Processing on Low-Molecular-Weight Proteome Identified by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry
R. E. Banks, A. J. Stanley, D. A. Cairns, J. H. Barrett, P. Clarke, D. Thompson, and P. J. Selby
Clin. Chem. 51, 1637-1649 (1 September 2005)

A Soluble Factor Secreted by an HIV-1-Resistant Cell Line Blocks Transcription through Inactivating the DNA-Binding Capacity of the NF-{kappa}B p65/p50 Dimer
A. Lesner, Y. Li, J. Nitkiewicz, G. Li, A. Kartvelishvili, M. Kartvelishvili, and M. Simm
J. Immunol. 175, 2548-2554 (15 August 2005)

Copy number polymorphism and expression level variation of the human {alpha}-defensin genes DEFA1 and DEFA3
P. M.R. Aldred, E. J. Hollox, and J. A.L. Armour
Hum Mol Genet 14, 2045-2052 (15 July 2005)

Expression of the common heat-shock protein receptor CD91 is increased on monocytes of exposed yet HIV-1-seronegative subjects
A. Kebba, J. Stebbing, S. Rowland, R. Ingram, J. Agaba, S. Patterson, P. Kaleebu, N. Imami, and F. Gotch
J. Leukoc. Biol. 78, 37-42 (1 July 2005)

A Proteomic Analysis of Human Hemodialysis Fluid
H. Molina, J. Bunkenborg, G. H. Reddy, B. Muthusamy, P. J. Scheel, and A. Pandey
MCP 4, 637-650 (1 May 2005)

Psoriatic scales: a promising source for the isolation of human skin-derived antimicrobial proteins
J. Harder, and J.-M. Schroder
J. Leukoc. Biol. 77, 476-486 (1 April 2005)

Topical microbicides for the prevention of genital herpes infection
M. J. Keller, A. Tuyama, M. J. Carlucci, and B. C. Herold
J Antimicrob Chemother 55, 420-423 (1 April 2005)

Leukotriene B4 Protects Latently Infected Mice against Murine Cytomegalovirus Reactivation following Allogeneic Transplantation
J. Gosselin, P. Borgeat, and L. Flamand
J. Immunol. 174, 1587-1593 (1 February 2005)

Antimicrobial proteins and peptides: anti-infective molecules of mammalian leukocytes
O. Levy, P. Borgeat, and L. Flamand
J. Leukoc. Biol. 76, 909-925 (1 November 2004)

Platelet Microbicidal Protein 1: Structural Themes of a Multifunctional Antimicrobial Peptide
N. Y. Yount, K. D. Gank, Y. Q. Xiong, A. S. Bayer, T. Pender, W. H. Welch, and M. R. Yeaman
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48, 4395-4404 (1 November 2004)

Differential Effects on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by {alpha}-Defensins with Comparable Bactericidal Activities
H. Tanabe, A. J. Ouellette, M. J. Cocco, and W. E. Robinson
J. Virol. 78, 11622-11631 (1 November 2004)

Cutting Edge: 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Is a Direct Inducer of Antimicrobial Peptide Gene Expression
T.-T. Wang, F. P. Nestel, V. Bourdeau, Y. Nagai, Q. Wang, J. Liao, L. Tavera-Mendoza, R. Lin, J. H. Hanrahan, S. Mader et al.
J. Immunol. 173, 2909-2912 (1 September 2004)

Beyond Help: Direct Effector Functions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Specific CD4+ T Cells
P. J. Norris, H. F. Moffett, O. O. Yang, D. E. Kaufmann, M. J. Clark, M. M. Addo, and E. S. Rosenberg
J. Virol. 78, 8844-8851 (15 August 2004)

Activity of {alpha}- and {theta}-Defensins against Primary Isolates of HIV-1
W. Wang, S. M. Owen, D. L. Rudolph, A. M. Cole, T. Hong, A. J. Waring, R. B. Lal, and R. I. Lehrer
J. Immunol. 173, 515-520 (1 July 2004)

Proteomics: current techniques and potential applications to lung disease
J. Hirsch, K. C. Hansen, A. L. Burlingame, and M. A. Matthay
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 287, L1-L23 (1 July 2004)

A Technical Triade for Proteomic Identification and Characterization of Cancer Biomarkers
C. Melle, G. Ernst, B. Schimmel, A. Bleul, S. Koscielny, A. Wiesner, R. Bogumil, U. Moller, D. Osterloh, K.-J. Halbhuber et al.
Cancer Res. 64, 4099-4104 (15 June 2004)

Release of Anti-HIV Mediators after Administration of Leukotriene B4 to Humans
L. Flamand, P. Borgeat, R. Lalonde, and J. Gosselin
The Journal of Infectious Disease 189, 2001-2009 (1 June 2004)

The Plant Virus Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus Activates the Immune System of Its Main Insect Vector, Frankliniella occidentalis
R. B. Medeiros, R. d. O. Resende, and A. C. de Avila
J. Virol. 78, 4976-4982 (15 May 2004)

{theta} Defensins Protect Cells from Infection by Herpes Simplex Virus by Inhibiting Viral Adhesion and Entry
B. Yasin, W. Wang, M. Pang, N. Cheshenko, T. Hong, A. J. Waring, B. C. Herold, E. A. Wagar, and R. I. Lehrer
J. Virol. 78, 5147-5156 (15 May 2004)

Increase in HIV Receptors/Co-receptors/{alpha}-defensins in Inflamed Human Gingiva
R. Jotwani, M. Muthukuru, and C.W. Cutler
JDR 83, 371-377 (1 May 2004)

Evidence of Positively Selected Sites in Mammalian {alpha}-Defensins
D. J. Lynn, A. T. Lloyd, M. A. Fares, and C. O'Farrelly
Mol Biol Evol 21, 819-827 (1 May 2004)

Enhanced Surfactant Protein and Defensin mRNA Levels and Reduced Viral Replication during Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Pneumonia in Neonatal Lambs
B. Grubor, J. M. Gallup, D. K. Meyerholz, E. C. Crouch, R. B. Evans, K. A. Brogden, H. D. Lehmkuhl, and M. R. Ackermann
CVI 11, 599-607 (1 May 2004)

Human Rhinovirus Infection Induces Airway Epithelial Cell Production of Human {beta}-Defensin 2 Both In Vitro and In Vivo
D. Proud, S. P. Sanders, and S. Wiehler
J. Immunol. 172, 4637-4645 (1 April 2004)

Inverse correlation between CD8+ lymphocyte apoptosis and CD4+ cell counts during potent antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients
S. Grelli, G. d'Ettorre, F. Lauria, F. Montella, L. Di Traglia, M. Lichtner, V. Vullo, C. Favalli, S. Vella, B. Macchi et al.
J Antimicrob Chemother 53, 494-500 (1 March 2004)

Perinerin, a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Purified from the Clamworm Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube and Its Partial Characterization
W. Pan, X. Liu, F. Ge, J. Han, and T. Zheng
J Biochem 135, 297-304 (1 March 2004)

Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus-encoded vIRF-3 Stimulates the Transcriptional Activity of Cellular IRF-3 and IRF-7
B. Lubyova, M. J. Kellum, A. J. Frisancho, and P. M. Pitha
J Biol Chem 279, 7643-7654 (27 February 2004)

HIV-1 Infection and Genomics: Sorting Out the Complexity
R. J. Pomerantz, M. J. Kellum, A. J. Frisancho, and P. M. Pitha
The Journal of Infectious Disease 189, 567-571 (15 February 2004)

Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
D. Goletti, S. Carrara, D. Vincenti, E. Giacomini, L. Fattorini, A. R. Garbuglia, M. R. Capobianchi, T. Alonzi, G. M. Fimia, M. Federico et al.
The Journal of Infectious Disease 189, 624-633 (15 February 2004)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Recall Antigens Suppress HIV-1 Replication in Anergic Donor Cells via CD8+ T Cell Expansion and Increased IL-10 Levels
S. Ranjbar, N. Ly, S. Thim, J.-M. Reynes, and A. E. Goldfeld
J. Immunol. 172, 1953-1959 (1 February 2004)

Retraction of an Interpretation
L. Zhang, P. Lopez, T. He, W. Yu, and D. D. Ho
Science 303, 467b-467b (23 January 2004)

All for CD91 and CD91 for all
J. Stebbing, P. Savage, S. Patterson, and B. Gazzard
J Antimicrob Chemother 53, 1-3 (1 January 2004)

HIV-1-suppressive factors are secreted by CD4+ T cells during primary immune responses
S. F. Abdelwahab, F. Cocchi, K. C. Bagley, R. Kamin-Lewis, R. C. Gallo, A. DeVico, and G. K. Lewis
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 15006-15010 (9 December 2003)

Activation of Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cells Results in Minimal Killing of Bystander Bacteria
J. Jiang, L. A. Zenewicz, L. R. San Mateo, L. L. Lau, and H. Shen
J. Immunol. 171, 6032-6038 (1 December 2003)

Relationship between In Vitro Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication Rate and Virus Load in Plasma
T. B. Campbell, K. Schneider, T. Wrin, C. J. Petropoulos, and E. Connick
J. Virol. 77, 12105-12112 (15 November 2003)

Immunodeficiency virus exploitation of dendritic cells in the early steps of infection
N. Teleshova, I. Frank, and M. Pope
J. Leukoc. Biol. 74, 683-690 (1 November 2003)

Roles of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins in innate and adaptive immunity
J J Oppenheim, A Biragyn, L W Kwak, and D Yang
Ann Rheum Dis 62, ii17-21 (1 November 2003)

The Trojan exosome hypothesis
S. J. Gould, A. M. Booth, and J. E. K. Hildreth
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 10592-10597 (16 September 2003)

Disease-associated dendritic cells respond to disease-specific antigens through the common heat shock protein receptor
J. Stebbing, B. Gazzard, S. Portsmouth, F. Gotch, L. Kim, M. Bower, S. Mandalia, R. Binder, P. Srivastava, S. Patterson et al.
Blood 102, 1806-1814 (1 September 2003)

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Alleles Associated with Slow Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression Bind Epitopes Recognized by Dominant Acute-Phase Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte Responses
D. H. O''Connor, B. R. Mothe, J. T. Weinfurter, S. Fuenger, W. M. Rehrauer, P. Jing, R. R. Rudersdorf, M. E. Liebl, K. Krebs, J. Vasquez et al.
J. Virol. 77, 9029-9040 (15 August 2003)

Haptoglobin-{alpha} Subunit As Potential Serum Biomarker in Ovarian Cancer: Identification and Characterization Using Proteomic Profiling and Mass Spectrometry
B. Ye, D. W. Cramer, S. J. Skates, S. P. Gygi, V. Pratomo, L. Fu, N. K. Horick, L. J. Licklider, J. O. Schorge, R. S. Berkowitz et al.
Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 2904-2911 (1 August 2003)

Biomarker Discovery and Identification in Laser Microdissected Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma with ProteinChip(R) Technology, Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, Tandem Mass Spectrometry, and Immunohistochemistry
C. Melle, G. Ernst, B. Schimmel, A. Bleul, S. Koscielny, A. Wiesner, R. Bogumil, U. Moller, D. Osterloh, K.-J. Halbhuber et al.
MCP 2, 443-452 (1 July 2003)

CAF-Mediated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Transcriptional Inhibition Is Distinct from {alpha}-Defensin-1 HIV Inhibition
T. L.-Y. Chang, F. Francois, A. Mosoian, and M. E. Klotman
J. Virol. 77, 6777-6784 (15 June 2003)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Human Uterine Epithelial Cells: Viral Shedding and Cell Contact-Mediated Infectivity
S. N. Asin, D. Wildt-Perinic, S. I. Mason, A. L. Howell, C. R. Wira, and M. W. Fanger
The Journal of Infectious Disease 187, 1522-1533 (15 May 2003)

The heat-shock protein receptor CD91 is up-regulated in monocytes of HIV-1-infected "true" long-term nonprogressors
J. Stebbing, B. Gazzard, L. Kim, S. Portsmouth, A. Wildfire, I. Teo, M. Nelson, M. Bower, F. Gotch, S. Shaunak et al.
Blood 101, 4000-4004 (15 May 2003)

Retrocyclin, an Antiretroviral {theta}-Defensin, Is a Lectin
W. Wang, A. M. Cole, T. Hong, A. J. Waring, and R. I. Lehrer
J. Immunol. 170, 4708-4716 (1 May 2003)

Innate Immunity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Effect of Viremia on Natural Killer Cell Function
S. Kottilil, T.-W. Chun, S. Moir, S. Liu, M. McLaughlin, C. W. Hallahan, F. Maldarelli, L. Corey, and A. S. Fauci
The Journal of Infectious Disease 187, 1038-1045 (1 April 2003)

The CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response can be blocked by protease inhibitors
C. E. Mackewicz, C. S. Craik, and J. A. Levy
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 3433-3438 (18 March 2003)

Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Peptide Action and Resistance
M. R. Yeaman, and N. Y. Yount
Pharmacol. Rev. 55, 27-55 (1 March 2003)

Nicotinamide: An Oral Antimicrobial Agent with Activity against Both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus
M. F. Murray, and N. Y. Yount
Clinical Infectious Diseases 36, 453-460 (15 February 2003)

NP-1, a Rabbit {alpha}-Defensin, Prevents the Entry and Intercellular Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2
S. Sinha, N. Cheshenko, R. I. Lehrer, and B. C. Herold
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47, 494-500 (1 February 2003)

HIV-1 Antiviral Activity of Recombinant Natural Killer Cell Enhancing Factors, NKEF-A and NKEF-B, Members of the Peroxiredoxin Family
R. Geiben-Lynn, M. Kursar, N. V. Brown, M. M. Addo, H. Shau, J. Lieberman, A. D. Luster, and B. D. Walker
J Biol Chem 278, 1569-1574 (17 January 2003)

Nonlinear Dose-Response Relationship in the Immune System following Exposure to Ionizing Radiation: Mechanisms and Implications
S.-Z. Liu, M. Kursar, N. V. Brown, M. M. Addo, H. Shau, J. Lieberman, A. D. Luster, and B. D. Walker
Dose-Response 1, 15401420390844483-15401420390844483 (1 January 2003)

Cutting Edge: L-Selectin (CD62L) Expression Distinguishes Small Resting Memory CD4+ T Cells That Preferentially Respond to Recall Antigen
R. L. Hengel, V. Thaker, M. V. Pavlick, J. A. Metcalf, G. Dennis, J. Yang, R. A. Lempicki, I. Sereti, and H. C. Lane
J. Immunol. 170, 28-32 (1 January 2003)

Mono-ADP-Ribosylation: A Tool for Modulating Immune Response and Cell Signaling
D. Corda, and M. Di Girolamo
Sci Signal 2002, pe53-pe53 (17 December 2002)

Mysterious CD8 Antiviral Factor Unmasked
M. Di Girolamo
JWatch Infect. Diseases 2002, 5-5 (21 November 2002)

CD8 Antiviral Factor identified
M. Di Girolamo
AIDS Clin Care 2002, 12-12 (1 November 2002)

Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882