Error message

No crossref credentials set for sci

MicroRNA-Directed Cleavage of HOXB8 mRNA

Science, 23 April 2004
Vol. 304, Issue 5670, p. 594-596
DOI: 10.1126/science.1097434

MicroRNA-Directed Cleavage of HOXB8 mRNA

  1. Soraya Yekta1,2,*,
  2. I-hung Shih1,*,
  3. David P. Bartel1,2,
  1. 1 Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
  2. 2 Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
  1. To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: dbartel{at}wi.mit.edu
  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ∼22-nucleotide RNAs, some of which are known to play important regulatory roles in animals by targeting the messages of protein-coding genes for translational repression. We find that miR-196, a miRNA encoded at three paralogous locations in the A, B, and C mammalian HOX clusters, has extensive, evolutionarily conserved complementarity to messages of HOXB8, HOXC8, and HOXD8. RNA fragments diagnostic of miR-196–directed cleavage of HOXB8 were detected in mouse embryos. Cell culture experiments demonstrated down-regulation of HOXB8, HOXC8, HOXD8, and HOXA7 and supported the cleavage mechanism for miR-196–directed repression of HOXB8. These results point to a miRNA-mediated mechanism for the posttranscriptional restriction of HOX gene expression during vertebrate development and demonstrate that metazoan miRNAs can repress expression of their natural targets through mRNA cleavage in addition to inhibiting productive translation.

    • Received for publication 26 January 2004.
    • Accepted for publication 15 March 2004.

    Citation:

    S. Yekta, I.-h. Shih, and D. P. Bartel, MicroRNA-Directed Cleavage of HOXB8 mRNA. Science 304, 594-596 (2004).

    Prospects for Therapeutic Targeting of MicroRNAs in Human Immunological Diseases
    M. E. Luck, S. A. Muljo, and C. B. Collins
    J. Immunol. 194, 5047-5052 (1 June 2015)

    StarScan: a web server for scanning small RNA targets from degradome sequencing data
    S. Liu, J.-H. Li, J. Wu, K.-R. Zhou, H. Zhou, J.-H. Yang, and L.-H. Qu
    Nucleic Acids Res 0, gkv524v1-gkv524 (18 May 2015)

    A Burst of miRNA Innovation in the Early Evolution of Butterflies and Moths
    S. Quah, J. H. L. Hui, and P. W. H. Holland
    Mol Biol Evol 32, 1161-1174 (1 May 2015)

    Technology in MicroRNA Profiling: Circulating MicroRNAs as Noninvasive Cancer Biomarkers in Breast Cancer
    F. Pimentel, P. Bonilla, Y. G. Ravishankar, A. Contag, N. Gopal, S. LaCour, T. Lee, and A. Niemz
    Journal of Laboratory Automation 0, 2211068214561788v1-2211068214561788 (18 December 2014)

    The TGF-{beta}-inducible miR-23a cluster attenuates IFN-{gamma} levels and antigen-specific cytotoxicity in human CD8+ T cells
    P. A. Chandran, A. Keller, L. Weinmann, A. Adel Seida, M. Braun, K. Andreev, B. Fischer, E. Horn, S. Schwinn, M. Junker et al.
    J. Leukoc. Biol. 96, 633-645 (1 October 2014)

    Crosstalk between microRNA30a/b/c/d/e-5p and the Canonical Wnt Pathway: Implications for Multiple Myeloma therapy
    J.-J. Zhao, and R. D. Carrasco
    Cancer Res. 74, 5351-5358 (1 October 2014)

    Differential regulation of aggressive features in melanoma cells by members of the miR-17-92 complex
    E. Greenberg, S. Hajdu, Y. Nemlich, R. Cohen, O. Itzhaki, J. Jacob-Hirsch, M. J. Besser, J. Schachter, and G. Markel
    Open Biol 4, 140030-140030 (1 June 2014)

    Elements and machinery of non-coding RNAs: toward their taxonomy
    T. Hirose, Y. Mishima, and Y. Tomari
    EMBO Rep. 15, 489-507 (1 May 2014)

    Cnidarian microRNAs frequently regulate targets by cleavage
    Y. Moran, D. Fredman, D. Praher, X. Z. Li, L. M. Wee, F. Rentzsch, P. D. Zamore, U. Technau, and H. Seitz
    Genome Res 24, 651-663 (1 April 2014)

    MicroRNAs and anticancer drugs
    Z. Xing, D. Li, L. Yang, Y. Xi, and X. Su
    Acta Biochim Biophys Sin 46, 233-239 (1 March 2014)

    Analysis of Complementarity Requirements for Plant MicroRNA Targeting Using a Nicotiana benthamiana Quantitative Transient Assay
    Q. Liu, F. Wang, and M. J. Axtell
    Plant Cell 26, 741-753 (1 February 2014)

    MicroRNA-34a Targets Bcl-2 and Sensitizes Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Sorafenib Treatment
    F. Yang, Q.-j. Li, Z.-b. Gong, L. Zhou, N. You, S. Wang, X.-l. Li, J.-j. Li, J.-z. An, D.-s. Wang et al.
    Technol Cancer Res Treat 13, 77-86 (1 February 2014)

    Targeting microRNAs in Pancreatic Cancer: Microplayers in the Big Game
    S. Khan, Ansarullah, D. Kumar, M. Jaggi, and S. C. Chauhan
    Cancer Res. 73, 6541-6547 (15 November 2013)

    Accelerating Cancer Modeling with RNAi and Nongermline Genetically Engineered Mouse Models
    G. Livshits, and S. W. Lowe
    Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2013, pdb.top069856-pdb.top069856 (1 November 2013)

    Divergent MicroRNA Targetomes of Closely Related Circulating Strains of a Polyomavirus
    C. J. Chen, J. E. Cox, R. P. Kincaid, A. Martinez, and C. S. Sullivan
    J. Virol. 87, 11135-11147 (15 October 2013)

    Overexpression of microRNA gga-miR-1650 decreases the replication of avian leukosis virus subgroup J in infected cells
    Q. Wang, X. Ji, Y. Gao, X. Qi, X. Wang, Y. Wang, L. Qin, H. Gao, and X. Wang
    J. Gen. Virol. 94, 2287-2296 (1 October 2013)

    The regulation of Hox gene expression during animal development
    M. Mallo, and C. R. Alonso
    Development 140, 3951-3963 (1 October 2013)

    Paternal obesity initiates metabolic disturbances in two generations of mice with incomplete penetrance to the F2 generation and alters the transcriptional profile of testis and sperm microRNA content
    T. Fullston, E. M. C. Ohlsson Teague, N. O. Palmer, M. J. DeBlasio, M. Mitchell, M. Corbett, C. G. Print, J. A. Owens, and M. Lane
    FASEB J. 27, 4226-4243 (1 October 2013)

    MiR-200b and miR-429 Function in Mouse Ovulation and Are Essential for Female Fertility
    H. Hasuwa, J. Ueda, M. Ikawa, and M. Okabe
    Science 341, 71-73 (5 July 2013)

    miRNA-93 Inhibits GLUT4 and Is Overexpressed in Adipose Tissue of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients and Women With Insulin Resistance
    Y.-H. Chen, S. Heneidi, J.-M. Lee, L. C. Layman, D. W. Stepp, G. M. Gamboa, B.-S. Chen, G. Chazenbalk, and R. Azziz
    Diabetes 62, 2278-2286 (1 July 2013)

    MicroRNA-146a Negatively Regulates the Immunoregulatory Activity of Bone Marrow Stem Cells by Targeting Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-2
    M. Matysiak, M. Fortak-Michalska, B. Szymanska, W. Orlowski, A. Jurewicz, and K. Selmaj
    J. Immunol. 190, 5102-5109 (15 May 2013)

    Mechanism of miRNA-mediated repression of mRNA translation
    T. Dalmay, M. Fortak-Michalska, B. Szymanska, W. Orlowski, A. Jurewicz, and K. Selmaj
    Essays Biochem. 54, 29-38 (3 May 2013)

    Context-specific microRNA function in developmental complexity
    A. P. Carroll, P. A. Tooney, and M. J. Cairns
    J Mol Cell Biol 5, 73-84 (1 April 2013)

    Structure, evolution and function of the bi-directionally transcribed iab-4/iab-8 microRNA locus in arthropods
    J. H. L. Hui, A. Marco, S. Hunt, J. Melling, S. Griffiths-Jones, and M. Ronshaugen
    Nucleic Acids Res 41, 3352-3361 (1 March 2013)

    Combinatorial mRNA binding by AUF1 and Argonaute 2 controls decay of selected target mRNAs
    X. Wu, S. Chesoni, G. Rondeau, C. Tempesta, R. Patel, S. Charles, N. Daginawala, B. E. Zucconi, A. Kishor, G. Xu et al.
    Nucleic Acids Res 41, 2644-2658 (1 February 2013)

    A Myc-microRNA network promotes exit from quiescence by suppressing the interferon response and cell-cycle arrest genes
    D. Polioudakis, A. A. Bhinge, P. J. Killion, B.-K. Lee, N. S. Abell, and V. R. Iyer
    Nucleic Acids Res 41, 2239-2254 (1 February 2013)

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Signaling during Gastrulation Negatively Modulates the Abundance of MicroRNAs That Regulate Proteins Required for Cell Migration and Embryo Patterning
    A. S. Bobbs, A. V. Saarela, T. A. Yatskievych, and P. B. Antin
    J Biol Chem 287, 38505-38514 (9 November 2012)

    IRE1{alpha} Cleaves Select microRNAs During ER Stress to Derepress Translation of Proapoptotic Caspase-2
    J.-P. Upton, L. Wang, D. Han, E. S. Wang, N. E. Huskey, L. Lim, M. Truitt, M. T. McManus, D. Ruggero, A. Goga et al.
    Science 338, 818-822 (9 November 2012)

    MiR-196a binding-site SNP regulates RAP1A expression contributing to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk and metastasis
    K. Wang, J. Li, H. Guo, X. Xu, G. Xiong, X. Guan, B. Liu, J. Li, X. Chen, K. Yang et al.
    Carcinogenesis 33, 2147-2154 (1 November 2012)

    Integrative Analysis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Reveals DNA Copy Number-Associated miRNAs Dysregulating Target Genes
    N. A. Serrano, C. Xu, Y. Liu, P. Wang, W. Fan, M. P. Upton, J. R. Houck, P. Lohavanichbutr, M. Kao, L. P. Zhao et al.
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 147, 501-508 (1 September 2012)

    Kinetic signatures of microRNA modes of action
    N. Morozova, A. Zinovyev, N. Nonne, L.-L. Pritchard, A. N. Gorban, and A. Harel-Bellan
    RNA 18, 1635-1655 (1 September 2012)

    Annexin-1-mediated Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis Are Regulated by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-induced Inhibition of miR-196a Expression
    A.-L. Pin, F. Houle, P. Fournier, M. Guillonneau, E. R. Paquet, M. J. Simard, I. Royal, and J. Huot
    J Biol Chem 287, 30541-30551 (31 August 2012)

    Predicting kissing interactions in microRNA-target complex and assessment of microRNA activity
    S. Cao, and S.-J. Chen
    Nucleic Acids Res 40, 4681-4690 (1 May 2012)

    In Silico and In Vitro Identification of MicroRNAs That Regulate Hepatic Nuclear Factor 4{alpha} Expression
    A. Ramamoorthy, L. Li, A. Gaedigk, L. D. Bradford, E. A. Benson, D. A. Flockhart, and T. C. Skaar
    Drug Metab. Dispos. 40, 726-733 (1 April 2012)

    Expression determinants of mammalian argonaute proteins in mediating gene silencing
    P. N. Valdmanis, S. Gu, N. Schuermann, P. Sethupathy, D. Grimm, and M. A. Kay
    Nucleic Acids Res 40, 3704-3713 (1 April 2012)

    Quantitative functions of Argonaute proteins in mammalian development
    D. Wang, Z. Zhang, E. O'Loughlin, T. Lee, S. Houel, D. O'Carroll, A. Tarakhovsky, N. G. Ahn, and R. Yi
    Genes Dev. 26, 693-704 (1 April 2012)

    Transcriptional regulation of miR-196b by ETS2 in gastric cancer cells
    Y.-L. Liao, L.-Y. Hu, K.-W. Tsai, C.-W. Wu, W.-C. Chan, S.-C. Li, C.-H. Lai, M.-R. Ho, W.-L. Fang, K.-H. Huang et al.
    Carcinogenesis 33, 760-769 (1 April 2012)

    miR-132 regulates the differentiation of dopamine neurons by directly targeting Nurr1 expression
    D. Yang, T. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Tang, H. Cui, Y. Tang, X. Zhang, D. Chen, N. Shen, W. Le et al.
    J. Cell Sci. 125, 1673-1682 (1 April 2012)

    Role of variations within microRNA-binding sites in cancer
    D. Landi, F. Gemignani, and S. Landi
    Mutagenesis 27, 205-210 (1 March 2012)

    Single-pot enzymatic synthesis of Dicer-substrate siRNAs
    K. Z. Guiley, A. J. Pratt, and I. J. MacRae
    Nucleic Acids Res 40, e40-e40 (1 March 2012)

    Upregulation of miR-196a and HOTAIR Drive Malignant Character in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
    T. Niinuma, H. Suzuki, M. Nojima, K. Nosho, H. Yamamoto, H. Takamaru, E. Yamamoto, R. Maruyama, T. Nobuoka, Y. Miyazaki et al.
    Cancer Res. 72, 1126-1136 (1 March 2012)

    MicroRNAs and their roles in aging
    T. Smith-Vikos, and F. J. Slack
    J. Cell Sci. 125, 7-17 (1 January 2012)

    Dysregulated microRNAs affect pathways and targets of biologic relevance in nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma
    S.-B. Ng, J. Yan, G. Huang, V. Selvarajan, J. L.-S. Tay, B. Lin, C. Bi, J. Tan, Y.-L. Kwong, N. Shimizu et al.
    Blood 118, 4919-4929 (3 November 2011)

    miRNA-dependent gene silencing involving Ago2-mediated cleavage of a circular antisense RNA
    T. B. Hansen, E. D. Wiklund, J. B. Bramsen, S. B. Villadsen, A. L. Statham, S. J. Clark, and J. Kjems
    EMBO J. 30, 4414-4422 (2 November 2011)

    The role of microRNAs in hematopoietic stem cell and leukemic stem cell function
    S. S. Chung, W. Hu, and C. Y. Park
    Therapeutic Advances in Hematology 2, 317-334 (1 October 2011)

    Argonaute protein identity and pairing geometry determine cooperativity in mammalian RNA silencing
    J. A. Broderick, W. E. Salomon, S. P. Ryder, N. Aronin, and P. D. Zamore
    RNA 17, 1858-1869 (1 October 2011)

    Evolutionary Changes of the Target Sites of Two MicroRNAs Encoded in the Hox Gene Cluster of Drosophila and Other Insect Species
    S. Miura, M. Nozawa, and M. Nei
    Genome Biol Evol 3, 129-139 (7 September 2011)

    Experimental strategies for microRNA target identification
    D. W. Thomson, C. P. Bracken, and G. J. Goodall
    Nucleic Acids Res 39, 6845-6853 (1 September 2011)

    RNA silencing in Monterey
    O. S. Rissland, and E. C. Lai
    Development 138, 3093-3102 (1 August 2011)

    miR-23a regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) contributes to sex differences in the response to cerebral ischemia
    C. Siegel, J. Li, F. Liu, S. E. Benashski, and L. D. McCullough
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11662-11667 (12 July 2011)

    Activation of a microRNA response in trans reveals a new role for poly(A) in translational repression
    E. P. Ricci, T. Limousin, R. Soto-Rifo, R. Allison, T. Poyry, D. Decimo, R. J. Jackson, and T. Ohlmann
    Nucleic Acids Res 39, 5215-5231 (1 July 2011)

    Global analysis of the mammalian RNA degradome reveals widespread miRNA-dependent and miRNA-independent endonucleolytic cleavage
    C. P. Bracken, J. M. Szubert, T. R. Mercer, M. E. Dinger, D. W. Thomson, J. S. Mattick, M. Z. Michael, and G. J. Goodall
    Nucleic Acids Res 39, 5658-5668 (1 July 2011)

    MicroRNAs and their roles in mammalian stem cells
    R. Yi, and E. Fuchs
    J. Cell Sci. 124, 1775-1783 (1 June 2011)

    MicroRNA programs in normal and aberrant stem and progenitor cells
    C. P. Arnold, R. Tan, B. Zhou, S.-B. Yue, S. Schaffert, J. R. Biggs, R. Doyonnas, M.-C. Lo, J. M. Perry, V. M. Renault et al.
    Genome Res 21, 798-810 (1 May 2011)

    A Microarray-based Approach Identifies ADP Ribosylation Factor-like Protein 2 as a Target of microRNA-16
    K. Wang, P. Li, Y. Dong, X. Cai, D. Hou, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Zhang, J. Li, H. Liang et al.
    J Biol Chem 286, 9468-9476 (18 March 2011)

    MicroRNA in Osteoarthritis
    C. Yu, W.-P. Chen, and X.-H. Wang
    Journal of International Medical Research 39, 1-9 (1 February 2011)

    Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation in Restenosis
    S. O. Marx, H. Totary-Jain, and A. R. Marks
    Circ Cardiovasc Interv 4, 104-111 (1 February 2011)

    Antisense tools for functional studies of human Argonaute proteins
    A. Mescalchin, A. Detzer, U. Weirauch, M. J. Hahnel, C. Engel, and G. Sczakiel
    RNA 16, 2529-2536 (1 December 2010)

    Evolution of Hox Gene Clusters in Gnathostomes: Insights from a Survey of a Shark (Scyliorhinus canicula) Transcriptome
    S. Oulion, M. Debiais-Thibaud, Y. d'Aubenton-Carafa, C. Thermes, C. Da Silva, S. Bernard-Samain, F. Gavory, P. Wincker, S. Mazan, D. Casane et al.
    Mol Biol Evol 27, 2829-2838 (1 December 2010)

    Form, Function, and Regulation of ARGONAUTE Proteins
    A. Mallory, and H. Vaucheret
    Plant Cell 22, 3879-3889 (1 December 2010)

    Pyruvate kinase M2 is a target of the tumor-suppressive microRNA-326 and regulates the survival of glioma cells
    B. Kefas, L. Comeau, N. Erdle, E. Montgomery, S. Amos, and B. Purow
    Neuro Oncol 12, 1102-1112 (1 November 2010)

    Genome-wide analysis reveals methyl-CpG-binding protein 2-dependent regulation of microRNAs in a mouse model of Rett syndrome
    H. Wu, J. Tao, P. J. Chen, A. Shahab, W. Ge, R. P. Hart, X. Ruan, Y. Ruan, and Y. E. Sun
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 18161-18166 (19 October 2010)

    Ratio of miR-196s to HOXC8 Messenger RNA Correlates with Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Metastasis
    Y. Li, M. Zhang, H. Chen, Z. Dong, V. Ganapathy, M. Thangaraju, and S. Huang
    Cancer Res. 70, 7894-7904 (15 October 2010)

    Functional Shifts in Insect microRNA Evolution
    A. Marco, J. H. L. Hui, M. Ronshaugen, and S. Griffiths-Jones
    Genome Biol Evol 2, 686-696 (12 October 2010)

    Biotin Regulates the Expression of Holocarboxylase Synthetase in the miR-539 Pathway in HEK-293 Cells
    B. Bao, R. Rodriguez-Melendez, S. S. K. Wijeratne, and J. Zempleni
    J. Nutr. 140, 1546-1551 (1 September 2010)

    Cellular MicroRNAs Inhibit Replication of the H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Infected Cells
    L. Song, H. Liu, S. Gao, W. Jiang, and W. Huang
    J. Virol. 84, 8849-8860 (1 September 2010)

    Conserved vertebrate mir-451 provides a platform for Dicer-independent, Ago2-mediated microRNA biogenesis
    J.-S. Yang, T. Maurin, N. Robine, K. D. Rasmussen, K. L. Jeffrey, R. Chandwani, E. P. Papapetrou, M. Sadelain, D. O'Carroll, E. C. Lai et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 15163-15168 (24 August 2010)

    MiRNA-196 Is Upregulated in Glioblastoma But Not in Anaplastic Astrocytoma and Has Prognostic Significance
    Y. Guan, M. Mizoguchi, K. Yoshimoto, N. Hata, T. Shono, S. O. Suzuki, Y. Araki, D. Kuga, A. Nakamizo, T. Amano et al.
    Clin. Cancer Res. 16, 4289-4297 (15 August 2010)

    Fragile X protein family member FXR1P is regulated by microRNAs
    A. Cheever, E. Blackwell, and S. Ceman
    RNA 16, 1530-1539 (1 August 2010)

    Cross talk between microRNA and epigenetic regulation in adult neurogenesis
    K. E. Szulwach, X. Li, R. D. Smrt, Y. Li, Y. Luo, L. Lin, N. J. Santistevan, W. Li, X. Zhao, P. Jin et al.
    JCB 189, 127-141 (5 April 2010)

    microRNA expression profile and identification of miR-29 as a prognostic marker and pathogenetic factor by targeting CDK6 in mantle cell lymphoma
    J.-J. Zhao, J. Lin, T. Lwin, H. Yang, J. Guo, W. Kong, S. Dessureault, L. C. Moscinski, D. Rezania, W. S. Dalton et al.
    Blood 115, 2630-2639 (1 April 2010)

    CCR4-NOT Deadenylates mRNA Associated with RNA-Induced Silencing Complexes in Human Cells
    X. Piao, X. Zhang, L. Wu, and J. G. Belasco
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 30, 1486-1494 (15 March 2010)

    MicroRNA-10b Promotes Migration and Invasion through KLF4 in Human Esophageal Cancer Cell Lines
    Y. Tian, A. Luo, Y. Cai, Q. Su, F. Ding, H. Chen, and Z. Liu
    J Biol Chem 285, 7986-7994 (12 March 2010)

    Tandem affinity purification of miRNA target mRNAs (TAP-Tar)
    N. Nonne, M. Ameyar-Zazoua, M. Souidi, and A. Harel-Bellan
    Nucleic Acids Res 38, e20-e20 (1 March 2010)

    The Neuronal MicroRNA miR-326 Acts in a Feedback Loop with Notch and Has Therapeutic Potential against Brain Tumors
    B. Kefas, L. Comeau, D. H. Floyd, O. Seleverstov, J. Godlewski, T. Schmittgen, J. Jiang, C. G. diPierro, Y. Li, E. A. Chiocca et al.
    J. Neurosci. 29, 15161-15168 (2 December 2009)

    miR-128b is a potent glucocorticoid sensitizer in MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells and exerts cooperative effects with miR-221
    A. Kotani, D. Ha, J. Hsieh, P. K. Rao, D. Schotte, M. L. den Boer, S. A. Armstrong, and H. F. Lodish
    Blood 114, 4169-4178 (5 November 2009)

    In ovo application of antagomiRs indicates a role for miR-196 in patterning the chick axial skeleton through Hox gene regulation
    E. McGlinn, S. Yekta, J. H. Mansfield, J. Soutschek, D. P. Bartel, and C. J. Tabin
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 18610-18615 (3 November 2009)

    MicroRNAs: tools for cancer diagnostics
    T Paranjape, F J Slack, and J B Weidhaas
    Gut 58, 1546-1554 (1 November 2009)

    Coupled RNA Processing and Transcription of Intergenic Primary MicroRNAs
    M. Ballarino, F. Pagano, E. Girardi, M. Morlando, D. Cacchiarelli, M. Marchioni, N. J. Proudfoot, and I. Bozzoni
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 29, 5632-5638 (15 October 2009)

    Combinatorial network of primary and secondary microRNA-driven regulatory mechanisms
    K. Tu, H. Yu, Y.-J. Hua, Y.-Y. Li, L. Liu, L. Xie, and Y.-X. Li
    Nucleic Acids Res 37, 5969-5980 (1 October 2009)

    The 5' terminal uracil of let-7a is critical for the recruitment of mRNA to Argonaute2
    K. M. Felice, D. W. Salzman, J. Shubert-Coleman, K. P. Jensen, and H. M. Furneaux
    Biochem. J. 422, 329-341 (1 September 2009)

    Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882