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Dynamic Complex Formation During the Yeast Cell Cycle

Science, 4 February 2005
Vol. 307, Issue 5710, p. 724-727
DOI: 10.1126/science.1105103

Dynamic Complex Formation During the Yeast Cell Cycle

  1. Ulrik de Lichtenberg1,*,
  2. Lars Juhl Jensen2,*,
  3. Søren Brunak1,
  4. Peer Bork2,3,
  1. 1 Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
  2. 2 European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
  3. 3 Max-Delbrück-Centre for Molecular Medicine, D-13092 Berlin, Germany.
  1. To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: bork{at}
  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.


To analyze the dynamics of protein complexes during the yeast cell cycle, we integrated data on protein interactions and gene expression. The resulting time-dependent interaction network places both periodically and constitutively expressed proteins in a temporal cell cycle context, thereby revealing previously unknown components and modules. We discovered that most complexes consist of both periodically and constitutively expressed subunits, which suggests that the former control complex activity by a mechanism of just-in-time assembly. Consistent with this, we show that additional regulation through targeted degradation and phosphorylation by Cdc28p (Cdk1) specifically affects the periodically expressed proteins.

    • Received for publication 10 September 2004.
    • Accepted for publication 9 December 2004.


    U. de Lichtenberg, L. J. Jensen, S. Brunak, and P. Bork, Dynamic Complex Formation During the Yeast Cell Cycle. Science 307, 724-727 (2005).

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