Error message

No crossref credentials set for sci

Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response

Science, 24 March 2006
Vol. 311, Issue 5768, p. 1770-1773
DOI: 10.1126/science.1123933

Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response

  1. Philip T. Liu1,2,*,
  2. Steffen Stenger4,*,
  3. Huiying Li3,
  4. Linda Wenzel4,
  5. Belinda H. Tan1,2,
  6. Stephan R. Krutzik2,
  7. Maria Teresa Ochoa2,
  8. Jürgen Schauber5,
  9. Kent Wu1,
  10. Christoph Meinken4,
  11. Diane L. Kamen6,
  12. Manfred Wagner7,
  13. Robert Bals8,
  14. Andreas Steinmeyer9,
  15. Ulrich Zügel10,
  16. Richard L. Gallo5,
  17. David Eisenberg3,
  18. Martin Hewison11,
  19. Bruce W. Hollis12,
  20. John S. Adams11,
  21. Barry R. Bloom13,
  22. Robert L. Modlin1,2,
  1. 1 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics; University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  2. 2 Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine; University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  3. 3 Department of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and Department of Energy Institute of Genomics and Proteomics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
  4. 4 Institut für Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie, und Hygiene, Universität Erlangen, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.
  5. 5 Division of Dermatology, University of California at San Diego, and Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare Center, San Diego, CA 92161, USA.
  6. 6 Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
  7. 7 Klinikum Nürnberg, Medizinische Klinik 3, D-90340 Nürnberg, Germany.
  8. 8 Pneumologie, Universität Marburg, D-35043 Marburg, Germany.
  9. 9 Medicinal Chemistry, Schering AG, D-13342 Berlin, Germany.
  10. 10 Corporate Research Business Area (CRBA) Dermatology, Schering AG, D-13342 Berlin, Germany.
  11. 11 Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.
  12. 12 Departments of Pediatrics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology, MUSC, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
  13. 13 Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  1. To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rmodlin{at}
  • * These authors contributed equally to this work.


In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophages is mediated principally by nitric oxide. We report here that TLR activation of human macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the vitamin D-1–hydroxylase genes, leading to induction of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also observed that sera from African-American individuals, known to have increased susceptibility to tuberculosis, had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and were inefficient in supporting cathelicidin messenger RNA induction. These data support a link between TLRs and vitamin D–mediated innate immunity and suggest that differences in ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection.

    • Received for publication 16 December 2005.
    • Accepted for publication 8 February 2006.


    P. T. Liu, S. Stenger, H. Li, L. Wenzel, B. H. Tan, S. R. Krutzik, M. T. Ochoa, J. Schauber, K. Wu, C. Meinken, D. L. Kamen, M. Wagner, R. Bals, A. Steinmeyer, U. Zügel, R. L. Gallo, D. Eisenberg, M. Hewison, B. W. Hollis, J. S. Adams, B. R. Bloom, and R. L. Modlin, Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response. Science 311, 1770-1773 (2006).

    Low Vitamin D and High Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Serum Levels Associate with Infectious and Cardiac Deaths in the HEMO Study
    M. Chonchol, T. Greene, Y. Zhang, A. N. Hoofnagle, and A. K. Cheung
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 0, ASN.2014101009v1-ASN.2014101009 (13 May 2015)

    Innate Immune Modulation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Moving Closer toward Vitamin D Therapy
    N. Heulens, H. Korf, and W. Janssens
    J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 353, 360-368 (1 May 2015)

    Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE)
    D. J. Raiten, F. A. S. Ashour, A. C. Ross, S. N. Meydani, H. D. Dawson, C. B. Stephensen, B. J. Brabin, P. S. Suchdev, B. van Ommen, the INSPIRE Consultative Group et al.
    J. Nutr. 145, 1039S-1108S (1 May 2015)

    Vitamin D-dependent induction of cathelicidin in human macrophages results in cytotoxicity against high-grade B cell lymphoma
    H. Bruns, M. Buttner, M. Fabri, D. Mougiakakos, J. T. Bittenbring, M. H. Hoffmann, F. Beier, S. Pasemann, R. Jitschin, A. D. Hofmann et al.
    Sci Transl Med 7, 282ra47-282ra47 (8 April 2015)

    The innate immune function of airway epithelial cells in inflammatory lung disease
    P. S. Hiemstra, P. B. McCray, and R. Bals
    Eur Respir J 45, 1150-1162 (1 April 2015)

    The impact of vitamin D on fetal and neonatal lung maturation. A systematic review
    S. Lykkedegn, G. L. Sorensen, S. S. Beck-Nielsen, and H. T. Christesen
    Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 308, L587-L602 (1 April 2015)

    Immunological role of vitamin D at the maternal-fetal interface
    J. A. Tamblyn, M. Hewison, C. L. Wagner, J. N. Bulmer, and M. D. Kilby
    J Endocrinol 224, R107-R121 (1 March 2015)

    Vitamin D Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Who, in What Form, and How Much?
    T. Hlavaty, A. Krajcovicova, and J. Payer
    J Crohns Colitis 9, 198-209 (1 February 2015)

    Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colorectal cancer risk according to tumour immunity status
    M. Song, R. Nishihara, M. Wang, A. T. Chan, Z. R. Qian, K. Inamura, X. Zhang, K. Ng, S. A. Kim, K. Mima et al.
    Gut 0, gutjnl-2014-308852v1-gutjnl-2014-308852 (15 January 2015)

    Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Mortality, Morbidity, and Growth Failure among a Prospective Cohort of HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Tanzanian Infants
    C. R. Sudfeld, C. Duggan, S. Aboud, R. Kupka, K. P. Manji, R. Kisenge, and W. W. Fawzi
    J. Nutr. 145, 121-127 (1 January 2015)

    Quantifying the vitamin D economy
    R. P. Heaney, and L. A. G. Armas
    Nutrition Reviews 73, 51-67 (1 January 2015)

    Manipulation of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    G. Lugo-Villarino, and O. Neyrolles
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 4, a018549-a018549 (1 November 2014)

    Autophagy in Tuberculosis
    V. Deretic, and O. Neyrolles
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 4, a018481-a018481 (1 November 2014)

    Vitamin D Deficiency Impairs Rituximab-Mediated Cellular Cytotoxicity and Outcome of Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With but Not Without Rituximab
    J. T. Bittenbring, F. Neumann, B. Altmann, M. Achenbach, J. Reichrath, M. Ziepert, J. Geisel, E. Regitz, G. Held, M. Pfreundschuh et al.
    JCO 32, 3242-3248 (10 October 2014)

    Cell-Autonomous Effector Mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    J. D. MacMicking, F. Neumann, B. Altmann, M. Achenbach, J. Reichrath, M. Ziepert, J. Geisel, E. Regitz, G. Held, M. Pfreundschuh et al.
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 4, a018507-a018507 (1 October 2014)

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels correlate with EGFR mutational status in pulmonary adenocarcinoma
    D.-Y. Shin, S. Kim, S. Park, J. S. Koh, C. H. Kim, H. Baek, S. H. Yang, and I. I. Na
    Endocr Relat Cancer 21, 715-721 (1 October 2014)

    The Seasonality of Tuberculosis, Sunlight, Vitamin D, and Household Crowding
    T. Wingfield, S. G. Schumacher, G. Sandhu, M. A. Tovar, K. Zevallos, M. R. Baldwin, R. Montoya, E. S. Ramos, C. Jongkaewwattana, J. J. Lewis et al.
    The Journal of Infectious Disease 210, 774-783 (1 September 2014)

    Deficiency in 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 30-Day Mortality in Patients With Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock
    M. A. Rech, T. Hunsaker, and J. Rodriguez
    Am J Crit Care 23, e72-e79 (1 September 2014)

    IL-32 is a molecular marker of a host defense network in human tuberculosis
    D. Montoya, M. S. Inkeles, P. T. Liu, S. Realegeno, R. M. B. Teles, P. Vaidya, M. A. Munoz, M. Schenk, W. R. Swindell, R. Chun et al.
    Sci Transl Med 6, 250ra114-250ra114 (20 August 2014)

    25-Hydroxvitamin D3 Promotes the Long-Term Effect of Specific Immunotherapy in a Murine Allergy Model
    G. Heine, C. Tabeling, B. Hartmann, C. R. Gonzalez Calera, A. A. Kuhl, J. Lindner, A. Radbruch, M. Witzenrath, and M. Worm
    J. Immunol. 193, 1017-1023 (1 August 2014)

    Intestinal epithelial vitamin D receptor deletion leads to defective autophagy in colitis
    S. Wu, Y.-g. Zhang, R. Lu, Y. Xia, D. Zhou, E. O. Petrof, E. C. Claud, D. Chen, E. B. Chang, G. Carmeliet et al.
    Gut 0, gutjnl-2014-307436v1-gutjnl-2014-307436 (30 July 2014)

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency is Associated With HIV Disease Progression and Virological Failure Post-Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Diverse Multinational Settings
    F. Havers, L. Smeaton, N. Gupte, B. Detrick, R. C. Bollinger, J. Hakim, N. Kumarasamy, A. Andrade, P. Christian, J. R. Lama et al.
    The Journal of Infectious Disease 210, 244-253 (15 July 2014)

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Keto-Mycolic Acid and Macrophage Nuclear Receptor TR4 Modulate Foamy Biogenesis in Granulomas: A Case of a Heterologous and Noncanonical Ligand-Receptor Pair
    H. K. Dkhar, R. Nanduri, S. Mahajan, S. Dave, A. Saini, A. K. Somavarapu, A. Arora, R. Parkesh, K. G. Thakur, S. Mayilraj et al.
    J. Immunol. 193, 295-305 (1 July 2014)

    Cutting Edge: Vitamin D Regulates Lipid Metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
    H. Salamon, N. Bruiners, K. Lakehal, L. Shi, J. Ravi, K. D. Yamaguchi, R. Pine, and M. L. Gennaro
    J. Immunol. 193, 30-34 (1 July 2014)

    Identification of Mycobacterium avium genes associated with resistance to host antimicrobial peptides
    N. Motamedi, L. Danelishvili, and L. E. Bermudez
    J Med Microbiol 63, 923-930 (1 July 2014)

    Vitamin D Receptor and Jak-STAT Signaling Crosstalk Results in Calcitriol-Mediated Increase of Hepatocellular Response to IFN-{alpha}
    C. M. Lange, J. Gouttenoire, F. H. T. Duong, K. Morikawa, M. H. Heim, and D. Moradpour
    J. Immunol. 192, 6037-6044 (15 June 2014)

    Novel Vaccination Strategies against Tuberculosis
    P. Andersen, and S. H. E. Kaufmann
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 4, a018523-a018523 (1 June 2014)

    Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells
    M. Djukic, M. L. Onken, S. Schutze, S. Redlich, A. Gotz, U.-K. Hanisch, T. Bertsch, S. Ribes, A. Hanenberg, S. Schneider et al.
    Infect. Immun. 82, 2585-2594 (1 June 2014)

    Vitamin D and Crohn's Disease in the Adult Patient: A Review
    A. Basson, M. L. Onken, S. Schutze, S. Redlich, A. Gotz, U.-K. Hanisch, T. Bertsch, S. Ribes, A. Hanenberg, S. Schneider et al.
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 38, 438-458 (1 May 2014)

    Diagnostic Value of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and New Cytokines in Neonatal Sepsis
    F. Cekmez, G. Aydemir, S. Yildirim, O. Bulut, T. Tunc, M. Kul, E. Z. Ince, and A. Coban
    European Journal of Inflammation 12, 297-304 (1 May 2014)

    Vitamin D in the Newborn, Part II: Bases for Current Dietary Recommendations in Term and Preterm Neonates
    F. B. Mimouni, G. Aydemir, S. Yildirim, O. Bulut, T. Tunc, M. Kul, E. Z. Ince, and A. Coban
    Neoreviews 15, e193-e198 (1 May 2014)

    Hypovitaminosis D and Low Urinary Tract Symptoms in a Female Population
    D. Foti, M. Greco, F. Cantiello, R. Damiano, E. Gulletta, A. Pujia, and T. Montalcini
    European Journal of Inflammation 12, 365-372 (1 May 2014)

    Vitamin D and risk of cause specific death: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort and randomised intervention studies
    R. Chowdhury, S. Kunutsor, A. Vitezova, C. Oliver-Williams, S. Chowdhury, J. C. Kiefte-de-Jong, H. Khan, C. P. Baena, D. Prabhakaran, M. B. Hoshen et al.
    BMJ 348, g1903-g1903 (1 April 2014)

    Characterization of Vitamin D Production by Human Ocular Barrier Cells
    J. A. Alsalem, D. Patel, R. Susarla, M. Coca-Prados, R. Bland, E. A. Walker, S. Rauz, and G. R. Wallace
    IOVS 55, 2140-2147 (1 April 2014)

    Potential antimicrobial agents for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
    N. Alsaad, B. Wilffert, R. van Altena, W. C. M. de Lange, T. S. van der Werf, J. G. W. Kosterink, and J.-W. C. Alffenaar
    Eur Respir J 43, 884-897 (1 March 2014)

    Vitamin D concentration and disease risk: the concerns
    S. Das, G. K. Singh, and P. Das
    Am J Clin Nutr 99, 648-649 (1 March 2014)

    Suppression of Iron-Regulatory Hepcidin by Vitamin D
    J. Bacchetta, J. J. Zaritsky, J. L. Sea, R. F. Chun, T. S. Lisse, K. Zavala, A. Nayak, K. Wesseling-Perry, M. Westerman, B. W. Hollis et al.
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 25, 564-572 (1 March 2014)

    All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Triggered Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Dependent on NPC2
    M. Wheelwright, E. W. Kim, M. S. Inkeles, A. De Leon, M. Pellegrini, S. R. Krutzik, and P. T. Liu
    J. Immunol. 192, 2280-2290 (1 March 2014)

    Plasma exchange induces vitamin D deficiency
    T. F. Hiemstra, A. Casian, P. Boraks, D. R. Jayne, and I. Schoenmakers
    QJM 107, 123-130 (1 February 2014)

    Maternal Vitamin D Status and Spontaneous Preterm Birth by Placental Histology in the US Collaborative Perinatal Project
    L. M. Bodnar, M. A. Klebanoff, A. D. Gernand, R. W. Platt, W. T. Parks, J. M. Catov, and H. N. Simhan
    Am J Epidemiol 179, 168-176 (15 January 2014)

    Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of vitamin D
    G. Jones, D. E. Prosser, and M. Kaufmann
    J. Lipid Res. 55, 13-31 (1 January 2014)

    Effect of vitamin D supplementation on antibiotic use: a randomized controlled trial
    B. Tran, B. K. Armstrong, P. R. Ebeling, D. R. English, M. G. Kimlin, J. C. van der Pols, A. Venn, V. Gebski, D. C. Whiteman, P. M. Webb et al.
    Am J Clin Nutr 99, 156-161 (1 January 2014)

    Beneficial role of vitamin D3 in the prevention of certain respiratory diseases
    K. v. q. Luong, and L. T. H. Nguy{ecirctilde}n
    Ther Adv Respir Dis 7, 327-350 (1 December 2013)

    Host-Directed Therapeutics for Tuberculosis: Can We Harness the Host?
    T. R. Hawn, A. I. Matheson, S. N. Maley, and O. Vandal
    Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 77, 608-627 (1 December 2013)

    TB or Not TB: That Is No Longer the Question
    R. L. Modlin, and B. R. Bloom
    Sci Transl Med 5, 213sr6-213sr6 (27 November 2013)

    Vitamin D status and TB treatment outcomes in adult patients in Tanzania: a cohort study
    S. Mehta, F. M. Mugusi, R. J. Bosch, S. Aboud, W. Urassa, E. Villamor, and W. W. Fawzi
    BMJ Open 3, e003703-e003703 (21 November 2013)

    Immunomodulatory Effects of Vitamin D on Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae
    M. Olliver, L. Spelmink, J. Hiew, U. Meyer-Hoffert, B. Henriques-Normark, and P. Bergman
    The Journal of Infectious Disease 208, 1474-1481 (1 November 2013)

    Association between prehospital vitamin D status and hospital-acquired bloodstream infections
    S. A. Quraishi, A. A. Litonjua, T. Moromizato, F. K. Gibbons, C. A. Camargo, E. Giovannucci, and K. B. Christopher
    Am J Clin Nutr 98, 952-959 (1 October 2013)

    Vitamin D3 Supplementation and Childhood Diarrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    A. R. Aluisio, Z. Maroof, D. Chandramohan, J. Bruce, M. Z. Mughal, Z. Bhutta, G. Walraven, M. I. Masher, J. H. J. Ensink, S. Manaseki-Holland et al.
    Pediatrics 132, e832-e840 (1 October 2013)

    In HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected patients, higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were not related to hepatitis C virus treatment responses but were associated with ritonavir use
    A. D. Branch, M. Kang, K. Hollabaugh, C. M. Wyatt, R. T. Chung, and M. J. Glesby
    Am J Clin Nutr 98, 423-429 (1 August 2013)

    Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Risk of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Children and Adolescents
    M. Science, J. L. Maguire, M. L. Russell, M. Smieja, S. D. Walter, and M. Loeb
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 57, 392-397 (1 August 2013)

    An information-gain approach to detecting three-way epistatic interactions in genetic association studies
    T. Hu, Y. Chen, J. W. Kiralis, R. L. Collins, C. Wejse, G. Sirugo, S. M. Williams, and J. H. Moore
    J Am Med Inform Assoc 20, 630-636 (1 July 2013)

    Toll-like Receptor 1 N248S Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Is Associated With Leprosy Risk and Regulates Immune Activation During Mycobacterial Infection
    C. de Sales Marques, V. N. Brito-de-Souza, L. T. A. Guerreiro, J. H. Martins, E. P. Amaral, C. C. Cardoso, I. M. F. Dias-Batista, W. L. da Silva, J. A. C. Nery, P. Medeiros et al.
    The Journal of Infectious Disease 208, 120-129 (1 July 2013)

    Calcium Absorption Response to Cholecalciferol Supplementation in Hemodialysis
    L. A. G. Armas, M. Zena, R. Lund, and R. P. Heaney
    CJASN 8, 1003-1008 (7 June 2013)

    The world pandemic of vitamin D deficiency could possibly be explained by cellular inflammatory response activity induced by the renin-angiotensin system
    M. Ferder, F. Inserra, W. Manucha, and L. Ferder
    Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 304, C1027-C1039 (1 June 2013)

    Vitamin D and child health: part 2 (extraskeletal and other aspects)
    N. J. Shaw, and M. Z. Mughal
    Arch. Dis. Child. 98, 368-372 (1 May 2013)

    Vitamin D Status and Outcomes After Renal Transplantation
    F. Bienaime, D. Girard, D. Anglicheau, G. Canaud, J. C. Souberbielle, H. Kreis, L. H. Noel, G. Friedlander, C. Elie, C. Legendre et al.
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 24, 831-841 (1 May 2013)

    Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Microbial Pathogens Using Improved Synthetic Antibacterial Peptides
    S. Ramon-Garcia, R. Mikut, C. Ng, S. Ruden, R. Volkmer, M. Reischl, K. Hilpert, and C. J. Thompson
    Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57, 2295-2303 (1 May 2013)

    Human IL10 Gene Repression by Rev-erb{alpha} Ameliorates Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clearance
    V. Chandra, S. Mahajan, A. Saini, H. K. Dkhar, R. Nanduri, E. B. Raj, A. Kumar, and P. Gupta
    J Biol Chem 288, 10692-10702 (12 April 2013)

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Promotes Negative Feedback Regulation of TLR Signaling via Targeting MicroRNA-155-SOCS1 in Macrophages
    Y. Chen, W. Liu, T. Sun, Y. Huang, Y. Wang, D. K. Deb, D. Yoon, J. Kong, R. Thadhani, Y. C. Li et al.
    J. Immunol. 190, 3687-3695 (1 April 2013)

    Genome-wide association analysis reveals 12q13.3-q14.1 as new risk locus for sarcoidosis
    S. Hofmann, A. Fischer, M. Nothnagel, G. Jacobs, B. Schmid, M. Wittig, A. Franke, K. I. Gaede, M. Schurmann, M. Petrek et al.
    Eur Respir J 41, 888-900 (1 April 2013)

    Type I Interferon Suppresses Type II Interferon-Triggered Human Anti-Mycobacterial Responses
    R. M. B. Teles, T. G. Graeber, S. R. Krutzik, D. Montoya, M. Schenk, D. J. Lee, E. Komisopoulou, K. Kelly-Scumpia, R. Chun, S. S. Iyer et al.
    Science 339, 1448-1453 (22 March 2013)

    Autophagy as an innate defense against mycobacteria
    E.-K. Jo, T. G. Graeber, S. R. Krutzik, D. Montoya, M. Schenk, D. J. Lee, E. Komisopoulou, K. Kelly-Scumpia, R. Chun, S. S. Iyer et al.
    Pathog Dis 67, 108-118 (1 March 2013)

    The Role of Vitamin D in Alzheimer's Disease: Possible Genetic and Cell Signaling Mechanisms
    K. V. Q. Luong, and L. T. H. Nguy{ecirctilde}n
    AM J ALZHEIMERS DIS OTHER DEMEN 28, 126-136 (1 March 2013)

    The Zebrafish Guide to Tuberculosis Immunity and Treatment
    L. Ramakrishnan, and L. T. H. Nguy{ecirctilde}n
    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 78, 179-192 (1 January 2013)

    Role of Vitamin D in Children with Respiratory Tract Infection
    S. Esposito, E. Baggi, S. Bianchini, P. Marchisio, and N. Principi
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 26, 1-13 (1 January 2013)

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 inhibits influenza A viruses through a mechanism distinct from that of surfactant protein D or defensins
    S. Tripathi, T. Tecle, A. Verma, E. Crouch, M. White, and K. L. Hartshorn
    J. Gen. Virol. 94, 40-49 (1 January 2013)

    Vitamin D Rescues Impaired Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor Release in Macrophages of HIV-Seropositive Individuals through an Enhanced Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway In Vitro
    A. Anandaiah, S. Sinha, M. Bole, S. K. Sharma, N. Kumar, K. Luthra, X. Li, X. Zhou, B. Nelson, X. Han et al.
    Infect. Immun. 81, 2-10 (1 January 2013)

    Heterotrimeric GAIT Complex Drives Transcript-Selective Translation Inhibition in Murine Macrophages
    A. Arif, P. Chatterjee, R. A. Moodt, and P. L. Fox
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 32, 5046-5055 (15 December 2012)

    Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with frequent respiratory tract infections: a randomised and double-blind intervention study
    P. Bergman, A.-C. Norlin, S. Hansen, R. S. Rekha, B. Agerberth, L. Bjorkhem-Bergman, L. Ekstrom, J. D. Lindh, and J. Andersson
    BMJ Open 2, e001663-e001663 (13 December 2012)

    Availability of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 to APCs Controls the Balance between Regulatory and Inflammatory T Cell Responses
    L. E. Jeffery, A. M. Wood, O. S. Qureshi, T. Z. Hou, D. Gardner, Z. Briggs, S. Kaur, K. Raza, and D. M. Sansom
    J. Immunol. 189, 5155-5164 (1 December 2012)

    Interleukin 13 Exposure Enhances Vitamin D-Mediated Expression of the Human Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide 18/LL-37 in Bronchial Epithelial Cells
    J. A. Schrumpf, M. A. J. A. van Sterkenburg, R. M. Verhoosel, S. Zuyderduyn, and P. S. Hiemstra
    Infect. Immun. 80, 4485-4494 (1 December 2012)

    Differential Trafficking of TLR1 I602S Underlies Host Protection against Pathogenic Mycobacteria
    B. E. Hart, and R. I. Tapping
    J. Immunol. 189, 5347-5355 (1 December 2012)

    Vitamin D and the Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Enhance Group A Streptococcus Resistance to Killing by Human Cells
    J. F. Love, H. J. Tran-Winkler, and M. R. Wessels
    mBio 3, e00394-12-e00394-12 (23 October 2012)

    Innate Immune Gene Polymorphisms in Tuberculosis
    A. K. Azad, W. Sadee, and L. S. Schlesinger
    Infect. Immun. 80, 3343-3359 (1 October 2012)

    Hypercalcemia in Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis: Expression of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide Is Characteristic of Granulomatous Inflammation
    J. Fierer, D. W. Burton, P. Haghighi, and L. J. Deftos
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 55, e61-e66 (1 October 2012)

    Induction of the human cathelicidin LL-37 as a novel treatment against bacterial infections
    A. M. van der Does, P. Bergman, B. Agerberth, and L. Lindbom
    J. Leukoc. Biol. 92, 735-742 (1 October 2012)

    Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency among HIV-1-Infected Patients in a Tropical Setting
    S. Wiboonchutikul, S. Sungkanuparph, S. Kiertiburanakul, L.-o. Chailurkit, A. Charoenyingwattana, W. Wangsomboonsiri, W. Chantratita, and B. Ongphiphadhanakul
    Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (JIAPAC) 11, 305-310 (1 October 2012)

    Vitamin D accelerates resolution of inflammatory responses during tuberculosis treatment
    A. K. Coussens, R. J. Wilkinson, Y. Hanifa, V. Nikolayevskyy, P. T. Elkington, K. Islam, P. M. Timms, T. R. Venton, G. H. Bothamley, G. E. Packe et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 15449-15454 (18 September 2012)

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D Response to Cholecalciferol Supplementation in Hemodialysis
    L. A. G. Armas, R. Andukuri, J. Barger-Lux, R. P. Heaney, and R. Lund
    CJASN 7, 1428-1434 (1 September 2012)

    Vitamin D Deficiency in Critically Ill Children
    K. Madden, H. A. Feldman, E. M. Smith, C. M. Gordon, S. M. Keisling, R. M. Sullivan, B. W. Hollis, A. A. Agan, and A. G. Randolph
    Pediatrics 130, 421-428 (1 September 2012)

    Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation and Risk of Acute Respiratory Infection in Mongolia
    C. A. Camargo, D. Ganmaa, A. L. Frazier, F. F. Kirchberg, J. J. Stuart, K. Kleinman, N. Sumberzul, and J. W. Rich-Edwards
    Pediatrics 130, e561-e567 (1 September 2012)

    The Association of Vitamin D Status With Pediatric Critical Illness
    J. D. McNally, K. Menon, P. Chakraborty, L. Fisher, K. A. Williams, O. Y. Al-Dirbashi, D. R. Doherty, and on behalf of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Gro
    Pediatrics 130, 429-436 (1 September 2012)

    Stem Bromelain-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis and Activation Curtail Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence
    S. Mahajan, V. Chandra, S. Dave, R. Nanduri, and P. Gupta
    The Journal of Infectious Disease 206, 366-376 (1 August 2012)

    Vitamin D, tuberculin skin test conversion, and latent tuberculosis in Mongolian school-age children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial
    D. Ganmaa, E. Giovannucci, B. R. Bloom, W. Fawzi, W. Burr, D. Batbaatar, N. Sumberzul, M. F. Holick, and W. C. Willett
    Am J Clin Nutr 96, 391-396 (1 August 2012)

    The consequences of chronic kidney disease on bone metabolism and growth in children
    J. Bacchetta, J. Harambat, P. Cochat, I. B. Salusky, and K. Wesseling-Perry
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 27, 3063-3071 (1 August 2012)

    Science Signaling. ISSN 1937-9145 (online), 1945-0877 (print). Pre-2008: Science's STKE. ISSN 1525-8882