Research ArticleImmunology

Cooperation between T cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 5 signaling for CD4+ T cell activation

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Science Signaling  16 Apr 2019:
Vol. 12, Issue 577, eaar3641
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aar3641

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Costimulatory receptor mechanisms

In addition to receiving antigen-driven signals through their T cell receptors (TCRs), CD4+ T cells also require activation of the costimulatory receptor CD28 to ensure full activation. Rodríguez-Jorge et al. combined mathematical modeling of signaling by the TCR and by the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor (TLR5) to predict how the two pathways could combine to induce T cell activation. Experiments then showed how the TCR and TLR5 pathways converged on the activation of critical transcriptional regulators needed for T cell activation, suggesting that TLR5 plays a role similar to that of CD28 in T cell activation.