Research ArticleHost-Pathogen Interactions

The Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin silences the inflammatory response to cytoskeletal damage before inducing actin cytoskeleton collapse

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Science Signaling  14 Jan 2020:
Vol. 13, Issue 614, eaaw9447
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aaw9447

Why Vibrio cholerae infection is noninflammatory

The MARTX toxin of Vibrio cholerae (MARTXVc) forms a pore in the plasma membrane and translocates multiple toxin effector domains into intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). These include an actin cross-linking domain (ACD), a Rho inactivation domain (RID), and an α/β hydrolase domain (ABH), as well as a protease that releases these effectors into the host cytoplasm. Using human IECs in an in vitro model of infection, Woida and Satchell found that RID and ABH suppressed proinflammatory signaling that would otherwise have been activated by the cytoskeleton-damaging effects of ACD. These results reveal how the MARTXVc effector domains simultaneously promote virulence and suppress inflammatory responses and may explain why cholera is a noninflammatory disease.

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