Toll-Like Receptors in Brain Development and Homeostasis

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Science's STKE  04 Sep 2007:
Vol. 2007, Issue 402, pp. pe47
DOI: 10.1126/stke.4022007pe47

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are best known as initiators of the innate immune response to pathogens. Recent reports now reveal intriguing roles for TLRs in the central nervous system (CNS). These include the regulation of neuroinflammation and of neurite outgrowth. The archetypal Toll protein in Drosophila melanogaster was implicated in the development of the nervous system. Now similar functions have been uncovered for the mammalian orthologs, the TLRs. TLRs expressed on CNS glia and neurons may recognize endogenous ligands and participate both in development and in responses associated with CNS injury.

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