Editors' ChoiceCellular and Molecular Signaling

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Science Signaling  23 Feb 2016:
Vol. 9, Issue 416, pp. ec41
DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aaf5030


Glial cell properties dictated by neurons

Signals from neurons alter gene expression in neighboring astrocytes.

W. T. Farmer, T. Abrahamsson, S. Chierzi, C. Lui, C. Zaelzer, E. V. Jones, B. P. Bally, G. G. Chen, J.-F. Théroux, J. Peng, C. W. Bourque, F. Charron, C. Ernst, P. J. Sjöström, K. K. Murai, Neurons diversify astrocytes in the adult brain through sonic hedgehog signaling. Science 351, 849–854 (2016). [Editor's Summary]

B. Stevens, A. K. Muthukumar, Differences among astrocytes. Science 351, 813 (2016). [Summary]

Ion Channels

Calcium channels deliver a one-two punch

CaV1.2 channels rely on both conformational signaling and Ca2+ flux to mediate neuronal plasticity.

B. Li, M. R. Tadross, R. W. Tsien, Sequential ionic and conformational signaling by calcium channels drives neuronal gene expression. Science 351, 863–867 (2016). [Editor's Summary]

Mucosal Immunology

Keeping immune cells quiet on a diet

A population of suppressive T cells in the small intestine of mice prevents immune responses to solid foods.

K. S. Kim, S.-W. Hong, D. Han, J. Yi, J. Jung, B.-G. Yang, J. Y. Lee, M. Lee, C. D. Surh, Dietary antigens limit mucosal immunity by inducing regulatory T cells in the small intestine. Science 351, 858–863 (2016). [Editor's Summary]

C. Kuhn, H. L. Weiner, How does the immune system tolerate food? Science 351, 810–811 (2016). [Summary]


Microbiota and infant development

The gut microbiota supports the growth of juvenile mice via growth hormone signaling.

M. Schwarzer, K. Makki, G. Storelli, I. Machuca-Gayet, D. Srutkova, P. Hermanova, M. E. Martino, S. Balmand, T. Hudcovic, A. Heddi, J. Rieusset, H. Kozakova, H. Vidal, F. Leulier, Lactobacillus plantarum strain maintains growth of infant mice during chronic undernutrition. Science 351, 854–857 (2016). [Editor's Summary]


The yin and yang of proteasomal regulation

Tandem ligand-binding sites in the proteasome subunit Rpn1 modulate proteasome activity both positively and negatively.

Y. Shi, X. Chen, S. Elsasser, B. B. Stocks, G. Tian, B.-H. Lee, Y. Shi, N. Zhang, S. A. H. de Poot, F. Tuebing, S. Sun, J. Vannoy, S. G. Tarasov, J. R. Engen, D. Finley, K. J. Walters, Rpn1 provides adjacent receptor sites for substrate binding and deubiquitination by the proteasome. Science 351, aad9421 (2016). [Editor's Summary]

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