Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. NF-κB reporter cell lines used in the study.
  • Fig. S2. FCS calibration of live-cell imaging data.
  • Fig. S3. Single-cell NF-κB p65 responses.
  • Fig. S4. Proteomic analysis of TLR4-induced secretion.
  • Fig. S5. Temporal analysis of TNF-α production.
  • Fig. S6. Larger cells exhibit a stronger TNFA response.
  • Fig. S7. NF-κB signaling does not affect the TNFA response.
  • Fig. S8. Analysis of NF-κB signaling in primary macrophages.
  • Fig. S9. NF-κB signaling in MEFs does not lead to TNF-α amplification.
  • Fig. S10. TNF-α uptake and production across different cell types.
  • Fig. S11. IFN-γ enhances TNFR1 abundance in macrophages.
  • Fig. S12. Measurements of TNF-α production and loss.
  • Fig. S13. Theoretical analysis of TNF-α uptake in small volumes.
  • Fig. S14. Proposed model of the NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages.
  • Fig. S15. Simulated NF-κB model outputs.
  • Fig. S16. Bifurcation analysis of the NF-κB system.
  • Table S1. Summary of TNF-α production measurements.
  • Table S2. Single-cell NF-κB model variables.
  • Table S3. Parameterization of the single-cell NF-κB model.
  • Table S4. Parameterization of the two-cell NF-κB model.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S5
  • References (6987)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Untreated RAW264.7 cells.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Lipid A–stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). TNF-α–stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Lipid A–stimulated BMDMs.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). TNF-α–stimulated BMDMs.
  • Model S1 (Microsoft Word format). TNF-α half-life in a local tissue environment.
  • Model S2 (Microsoft Word format). Mathematical model of NF-κB signaling in macrophages.
  • Model S3 (Microsoft Word format). Propagation of signaling between producing cells and target cells.
  • Model S4 (Microsoft Word format). Analysis of autocrine TNF-α feedback.
  • File S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Tabulated smFISH data.
  • File S2 (.zip format). Mathematical model files.

[Download Models S1 to S4]