Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Phenotypes due to expression of ca-ACVR1 in CNCCs during craniofacial development.
  • Fig. S2. Cell migration, proliferation, and survival are unaltered in ca-Acvr1 mutants.
  • Fig. S3. Skeletal stem cell populations are unaltered in ca-Acvr1 mutants.
  • Fig. S4. Noncanonical BMP signaling and TGF-β signaling are unaffected in ca-Acvr1 mutants.
  • Fig. S5. LDN193189 suppresses Smad1/5/9 phosphorylation and chondrogenesis of BA1 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.
  • Fig. S6. Increased commitment of BA1 cells to the chondrocyte fate in ca-Acvr1 mutants.
  • Fig. S7. siRaptor or rapamycin suppresses mTORC1 signaling and Wnt–β-catenin signaling.
  • Fig. S8. Blocking Wnt–β-catenin signaling suppresses chondrogenesis of BA1 cells but enhances chondrogenic differentiation of limb bud cells.
  • Fig. S9. Autophagy inhibits β-catenin signaling and is suppressed by BMP-mTORC1 signaling in BA1 cells.
  • Fig. S10. Uncropped Western blots for Figs. 1, 4, and 5.
  • Fig. S11. Uncropped Western blots for Fig. 6.
  • Table S1. Genotyping PCR primers.
  • Table S2. Quantitative real-time PCR primers.
  • Table S3. Antibodies used in this study.

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