Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Activin A–neutralizing antibody specifically interferes with recombinant activin A–induced pSMAD2 activation.
  • Fig. S2. Activin A antibody administration inhibits rhBMP6-induced subcutaneous heterotopic cartilage and bone formation.
  • Fig. S3. Recruitment and migration of cells into implanted Matrigel.
  • Fig. S4. Gene ontology term analysis of cellular phenotypic and developmental processes.
  • Fig. S5. KEGG-based Pathview plot analysis of possible mode of action of anti–activin A treatment.
  • Fig. S6. Inflammatory and hematopoietic cells are present at early stages of HO development.
  • Fig. S7. Phenotypes of macrophages present in developing HO masses.
  • Fig. S8. Analyses of cell-cell communication and ligand-receptor target interactions in mesenchymal and immune cells present in developing HO.
  • Fig. S9. Flow cytometry analyses of cell populations present in HO masses.
  • Fig. S10. Activin A antibody administration inhibits intramuscular rhBMP6-induced HO.
  • Fig. S11. Endogenous activin A is present in developing HO masses.
  • Fig. S12. Exogenous activin A stimulates rhBMP6-induced HO development.
  • Fig. S13. Gene expression analysis of receptors for TGF-β superfamily members.
  • Fig. S14. Working model of activin A and TGF-β roles in acquired HO development.
  • Table S1. GSEA of macrophage clusters.
  • Table S2. Primer sequences.

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