Table 1. Biochemical methods used to detect protein kinase substrates.

Listed are various methods using biochemical approaches to predict substrates on the basis of linear and structural motifs.

Biochemical
methods
Arrangement of detected motif in detected
substrate
References
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometryLinear and structural motifs(40)
Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)Linear and structural motifs(41, 42, 53, 128)
Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (kinase-specific antibodies)Linear and structural motifs(129)
Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (antibodies against phosphomotifs)Linear and structural motifs(54)
Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) systemLinear and structural motifs(61, 62)
Split-ubiquitin system (SUS)Linear and structural motifs(64, 65)
Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC)Linear and structural motifs(65, 66)
Kinase-interacting substrate screening (KISS)Linear and structural motifs(60)
Kinase assay linked with phosphoproteomics (KALIP)Linear motifs(67)
Engineered kinases (chemical genetics)Linear and structural motifs(70, 71)