Table 1 Therapeutic means of enhancing selective autophagy in metabolic disease.
TreatmentSelective autophagy-related targets
identified thus far
Impacts on cardiometabolic diseases
Behavioral interventions
ExerciseBag3 (221), p62 (221), Nrf2 (241), TFEB (242), BNIP3 (243), and BRCA1 (244)Broad protection
Caloric restriction (or fasting)BNIP3 (245), FOXO (245), TFEB (194, 246), Rab7 (164), p62 (247), and TFE3 (187)Broad protection
Genetic models
TFEBp62(43, 185) and other autophagy-lysosomal genes (43, 185, 186)↓ NAFLD (194), ↓ obesity/diabetes (194), and ↓ atherosclerosis (43)
TFE3p62(192) among many autophagy-lysosomal genes (187, 192)↓ NAFLD (225, 248) and ↓ diabetes (225, 226)
Pharmacological strategies
Trehalosep62 (249) and other means of autophagy modulation (145, 232, 249251)↓ NAFLD (68, 232), ↓ diabetes (41, 68, 234), and ↓ endothelial dysfunction (145, 233)
SpermidineATM (252), PINK1 (252), and Parkin (252)↓ Atherosclerosis (239) and ↓ endothelial dysfunction (144, 238)