Table 2 Drugs acting on various processes involved in viral entry and infection.

Name of drugMode of actionClinical statusCOVID19
ClinicalTrials.gov IDs*
Other detailsChEMBL ID
Inhibitors of viral attachment
Camostat mesylateTMPRSS2 inhibitionApproved (Japan)NCT04355052,
NCT04374019,
NCT04353284,
NCT04321096,
NCT04470544
Shown to be relevant in
pancreatic fibrosis
590799
Nafamostat mesylateTMPRSS2 inhibitionApproved (Japan)NCT04473053Also inhibits human
tryptase. Has strong
anticoagulant effect
3989553
Decanoyl-RVKR-CMKFurin inhibitionPreclinicalHas been shown to
inhibit CoV-2 spike
cleavage at S1/S2 site
by furin.§ Because the
NRP1 receptor binds
after cleavage, furin
inhibition is potentially
more relevant
3126388
AbituzumabIntegrin inhibition
vβ6, pan-αv)
Phase 2 in oncologyMay also be relevant in
fibrosis
2109621
CilengitideIntegrin inhibition
vβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6)
Phase 3 in oncologyMay also be relevant in
fibrosis, sepsis
429876
SuraminEntry/early replication
inhibitor, mode of
action unknown
FDA approvedDrug of choice for
treating African
trypanosomiasis. Not
without side effects
413376
Endocytosis inhibitors
AmiodaroneInhibits late endosomesFDA approvedNCT04351763Cell culture–based
evidence for SARS-CoV
inhibition
633
ChlorpromazineInhibits dynamin,
thereby blocking
clathrin-mediated
endocytosis
FDA approvedNCT04354805,
NCT04366739
Antipsychotic drug
routinely used as
endocytosis inhibitor in
cell culture
823
ApilimodInhibits PIKfyve, a
regulator of endosomal
trafficking
Phase 2NCT04446377Blocks SARS-CoV-2
infection. Good safety
profile from (failed)
clinical trials for
immune disease
application. Clinical
trials are registered
4297643
ImatinibAbl inhibitorFDA approvedNCT04422678,
NCT04394416,
NCT04346147,
NCT04357613
First-line treatment for
chronic myeloid
leukemia
941
TeicoplaninInhibits cathepsin L
(late endosomes and
lysosome)
FDA approvedGlycopeptide antibiotic2367892
BaricitinibInhibits AAK1 and GAK
endocytic kinases
FDA approvedNCT04321993,
NCT04340232,
NCT04401579,
NCT04362943,
NCT04421027,
NCT04390464,
NCT04358614,
NCT04346147,
NCT04373044,
NCT04393051,
NCT04320277,
NCT04399798
Also inhibits JAK kinase2105759
BI-853520FAK inhibitorPhase 1FAK has been
implicated in the
Influenza A virus cell
entry and replication
3544961
SaracatinibSrc and Abl inhibitorPhase 2 in oncologyNow also considered
for Alzheimer’s disease
217092
Tyrphostin A9PDGF receptor kinase
inhibitor (plus other
activities)
PreclinicalInhibits actin ring
formation
78150
Autophagy modulators
MetforminNDUF modulation;
mTOR pathway
modulation (plus other
activities?)
FDA approvedNCT04510194Approved for type 2
diabetes
1431
Rapamycin
Everolimus
mTORC1 inhibitionFDA approvedNCT04482712Used for preventing
transplant rejection
1908360
413
SimvastatinAutophagy up-
regulation via mTOR
FDA approvedNCT04348695,
NCT02735707
Treatment for
dyslipidemia and
atherosclerosis
prevention
1064
Niclosamide
Valinomycin (VAL)
Inhibits SKP2Niclosamide—FDA
approved;
VAL—Preclinical
NCT04372082,
NCT04436458,
NCT04399356
Niclosamide—
moderate effect; VAL
targets MERS-CoV in
cell culture,# known to
inhibit SKP2
1448
NVP-BEZ235/dactolisibAutophagy inductionPhase 2PI3k/Akt/mTOR1879463
Spautin-1Autophagy down-
regulation by inhibition
of USP10 and USP13
PreclinicalInhibits dengue virus
replication in tissue
culture model.**
Reported to have low
toxicity in mice††
2391504
FluoxetineAffects endolysosomal
acidification and
cholesterol
accumulation in the
endosomes
FDA approvedNCT04377308Used in treatment of
major depressive
disorder and obsessive
compulsive disorder.
Inhibits SARS-CoV-2
replication in Calu-3
and Vero E6 cells‡‡
41

*Clinical trial information can be checked by clicking the IDs (181).

†Drug details are accessible by clicking ChEMBL IDs (180).

‡Reference (193).

§Reference (90).

║Reference (197).

¶Reference (186).

#Reference (207).

**Reference (205).

††Reference (204).

‡‡Reference (206).